Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Centrum Dokumentacji Współczesnej Sztuki Sakralnej
pl. Ofiar Getta 4-5/35, 35-002 Rzeszów
tel. +48 17 872 20 98

Download the article in PDF

Fr. Janusz Królikowski
Pontifical University John Paul II in Krakow

Abstract
Almost from its very beginning, the faith of the Church incorporated art in its various forms of expression into the process of interpreting its doctrine. Quite quickly the Church included in this process the dogma of creation, i.e. the calling of the world into existence by God. At first, in polemic against ancient Manichaean tendencies, this dogma contributed to a positive view of matter, and thus to the possibility of using it in the realm of religion: since it comes from God, it cannot be an obstacle to worshipping him. Over time, the theme of creation itself was also incorporated into art, above all because it shaped Christian aesthetics, which always in some way reflected the essential elements of the Christian vision of the world and matter: radiance, proportion, harmony. Scholastic theologians in the Middle Ages drew attention to the fact that aesthetics, referring to the creative work of God, can play a supportive role in man’s return to God, thanks to the fact that it lifts his spirit towards the Creator. In the Middle Ages the motif of God the Creator, especially as the Creator of all things, also appeared in art. Under the influence of Enlightenment and positivist tendencies, matter lost its symbolic and theological bearing, becoming only a material made available to man, and thus the motif of creation disappeared from art. This means that there is a need to search for the possibility of including the truth about creation in art.

Keywords: Creator, creation, dogma, art, matter, aesthetics, light

Bibliography
Agnoli F., Roberto Grossatesta. La filosofia della luce, Bologna 2007.
Baschet J., L’iconographie médievale, Paris 2008.
Biffi I., Mirabile medioevo, Milano 2009.
Boespflug F., Dieu au compass. Histoire d’une motif et de ses usages, Paris 2017.
Boespflug F., Dieu et ses images, Paris 2017.
Boespflug F., Dottrina delle immagini, immagini della dottrina. Meditazione storico-teologica, in: La sapienza del cuore. Omagio a Enzo Bianchi, Torino 2013.
Boespflug F., Le Créateur au compas. Deus geometra dans l’art d’Occident (IXe – XIXe siècle), “Micrologus” 19 (2011).
Chenu M.-D., La teologia nel dodicesimo secolo, Milano 1986.
Chenu M.-D., Teologia materii. Cywilizacja techniczna i duchowość chrześcijańska [Théologie de la matière. Civilisation technique et spiritualité chrétienne], transl. O. Scherner, Paris 1969.
Congar Y., Le theme du Dieu créateur et les explications de l’Hexaemeron dans la tradition chrétienne, in: L’homme devant Dieu. Mélanges offerts au P. Henri de Lubac, vol. 1, Paris 1964.
Cuttini E., Ars, in: Dizionario bonaventuriano. Filosofia, teologia, spiritualità, ed. E. Caroli, Padova 2008.
John Damascene, Apologia of St John Damascene Against Those Who Decry Holy Images Part II, transl. Mary H. Allies, London: Thomas Baker, 1898. [orig. Jan Damasceński II mowa obronna przeciw tym, którzy odrzucają święte obrazy (Contra imaginum calumniatores), 13–14 (transl. M.M. Dylewska), „VoxPatrum” 25 (2005), vol. 48].
Del Zotto C., La teologia dell’immagine in San Bonaventura, Vicenza 1977.
Die philosophischen Werke des Robert Grosseteste, Bischofs von Lincoln, ed. L. Baur, Münster 1912.
Duby G., Czasy katedr. Sztuka i społeczeństwo 980–1420 [Le Temps des cathédrales. L’Art et la société (980-1420)], transl. K. Dolatowska, Warszawa 1997.
Eco U., Il problema estetico in San Tommaso, Torino 1956.
Forestier S., N. Hazan-Brunet, E. Kuzmina, Chagall. Viaggio nella Bibbia. Studi inediti e gouaches, Milano 2014.
Gibert P., Quand les peintres lisaient la Bible. L’exégèse des peinters à la Renaissance, Paris 2015.
Gilson E., Saint Bernard. Un itinéraire de retour à Dieu, Paris 2011.
Guglielmo di Saint-Thierry, Bernardo di Chiaravalle, Pietro Abelardo. Una controversia teologica del XII secolo, ed. F. Troncarelli, Brescia 2010.
von Harnack A., Das Wesen des Christentums. Sechzehn Vorlesungen vor Studiereden aller Fakultäten im Wintersemester 1899-1900 an der Universität Berlin, Leipzig 1901.
Hugo V., Katedra Marii Panny w Paryżu [Notre-Dame de Paris], transl. H. Szumańska-Gross, Warszawa 2005.
Hugh of Saint Victor, Didascalicon czyli co i jak czytać [Didascalicon de studio legendi], transl. P. Pludra-Żuk, introduction J. Soszyński, comments P. Pludra-Żuk, J. Soszyński, Warszawa 2017.
Królikowski J., L’aspetto soteriologico del manicheismo primitivo e le possibili cause della sua attrattiva, w: Pagani e cristiani alla ricerca della salvezza (secoli I-III). XXXIV Incontro di studiosi dell’antichità cristiana, Roma, 5-7 maggio 2005, Roma 2006.
Leclercq J., Essais sur l’esthétique de S. Bernard, „Studi Medievali” 9 (1968).
Łukaszuk T.D., Ikona w życiu, w wierze i w teologii Kościoła [The Icon in the Life, Faith, and Theology of the Church], Kraków 2002.
Mâle E., Religious Art in France XIII Century, transl. Dora Nussey, London and New York, 1913, [orig. L’art religieux du XIII siècle en France], Paris 1922.
Mariani G., La luce, Roma 2005.
Maritain J., Georges Rouault, New York 1952.
McMullin E., Ewolucja i stworzenie [Evolution and Creation], transl. J. Rodzeń, Kraków 2014.
Metafizyka obecności. Inspiracje religijne w dziełach artystów krakowskich 2000-2019 2019 [The Metaphysics of Presence. Religious Inspirations in the Works of Krakow Artists 2000 – 2019], eds. B. Stano, A. Daca, Kraków 2019.
Mews C.J., Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Abelard, in: A Companion to Bernard of Clairvaux, ed. B. P. McGuire, Leiden–Boston 2011.
Morfologia sztuki. Współczesne oblicza transcendencji. Międzynarodowe sympozjum. Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Jana Matejki, Wydział Rzeźby, 1–2 grudnia 2016 r. [The Morphology of Art. Modern Faces of Transcendence. The International Symposium. Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, Faculty of Sculpture, 1 – 2 December 2016], Kraków 2019.
Rationale divinorum officiorum Guillelmi Duranti Liber I et II, ed. G.F. Freguglia, Città del Vaticano, 2001.
Schönborn Ch., Ikona Chrystusa [Die Christus-Ikone], transl. W. Szymona, Poznań 2001.
Sedlmayr H., Verlust der Mitte. Die bildende Kunst des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts als Symptom und Symbol der Zeit, Salzburg 1998.
Tatarkiewicz W., Historia estetyki, vol. 2: Estetyka średniowieczna [History of Philosophy. Vol. 2: Medieval Aesthetics], Warszawa 1988.
Tertullian, De resurrectione carnis 8, 2, in Catechism of the Catholic Church https://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM, point 1015 [orig. Katechizm Kościoła katolickiego, Poznań 2002, no. 1015].
Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae I q. 5 a. Se4 ad 1.
Verger J., Jolivet J., Bernardo e Abelardo, Il chiostro e la scuola, Milano 1989.
Wąsek D., Koncepcja teologii Piotra Abelarda [Peter Abelard’s Conception of Theology], Kraków 2010.
Zambruno P.S., La bellezza che salva. L’estetica di Tommaso d’Aquino, Napoli 2008.

Skip to content