Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Centrum Dokumentacji Współczesnej Sztuki Sakralnej
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tel. +48 17 872 20 98

Maria J. Żychowska

Cracow, Politechnika Krakowska

Abstract:

The paper presents an overview of recent Polish stained glass developments rather than a certain category of artists and works of well-known stained glass studios, which would certainly imply a subjective evaluation and a falsification of the actual state. The quality and overall image of this field of art are not determined only by individual artistic achievements, especially when they constitute a definite minority.

Analysis of the latest Polish stained glass art should include its specificity and dissimilarity in relation to the parallel foreign achievements. These differences relate primarily to technological issues. A wide range of accomplishments, great formal variety, scope and scale as well as apparently continued development which characterize Polish stained glass give it a high place in European art.

keywords: contemporary stained glass, artists, Poland

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When considering the latest developments in the art of stained glass in Poland, we can notice a specific quality that distinguishes it from parallel European achievements in the field. This is mainly apparent in the technology which, after all, determines the form and style of glazing. In Poland, traditional stained glass craftsmanship still prevails while in other countries this has been mostly replaced by fusing and moulding techniques that impose  different formal solutions.

Another significant issue is the style of Polish stained glass windows. Most of them are rather traditional representational images, although they resort to simplified drawings, a synthetic form and colour. However, the aesthetic value of stained glass seems to depend mainly on the hand of the master who creates it. The Polish  masters in the art of stained glass, whose works are dominant in the whole range of stain glass achievement, include Jerzy Skąpski, Józef Furdyna, Teresa Maria Reklewska, Jerzy Kalina and Aniela Kita.

Stained glass has long been associated with flat glass panels made from pieces of coloured glass held together with a strip of lead. Its role was to decorate an architectural interior, mainly that of a church. However, in the last decades of the 20th century, the avant-garde of this art took a completely new direction. This does not mean that the old established craft has been abandoned, yet certain innovative trends have been generally acclaimed and have found admirers both worldwide and in Poland. It ought to be pointed out that, on the whole, the aesthetic expression of stained glass art in Poland differs from its counterparts anywhere else in the world. Our art is conservative, represented mostly by realistic, figurative objects. Polish innovativeness in this respect is far from avant-garde, except for in a few individual cases.

At his point, it is worth taking a brief look at some examples of European church stained glass art.

After the devastation of World War II, the great rebuilding of ruined churches began. The ruling principle was to equip interiors with thoroughly contemporary art. No compromises with the historic architectural style were suggested.

Also in Germany, the replacements of stained glass windows were totally contemporary realizations. The medieval interiors received stained glass windows which were made according to the trends in the art of the mid – twentieth century. They were considered documents of their times, because the damage to the authentic stained glass windows was so great that it was pointless to make either replicas or reconstructions. That is how the stained glass windows were made for the cathedrals in Munich, Aachen, Cologne and for many other important historic buildings. The most important artists include Georg Meisterman, who gave a new direction to the post-war stained glass art in Germany, along with Ludwig Schaffrath and Johannes Schreiter. Their works clearly express the spirit of the art of our epoch and surprisingly tactfully blend with the interiors. Meistermann in particular maintains the atmosphere of architectural divisions without competing with the character of the interiors with configurations of lines and compilations of lead strips, as is the case in St. Gereon’s Basilica in Cologne. Schaffrath altogether abandoned colour in the gothic cathedral in Aachen for the sake of a very graphical layout of glass joints. With time, such monochromatic stained glass, made according to the principles of an old technique called grisaille[1], became his trade mark. This does not mean that he completely disregarded colour because he used it in the stained glass windows for the historic town hall in Wiesbaden, although the range of colour there was rather limited.

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Alongside the original stained glass windows dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries, the cathedral in Munich features stained glass windows made by Max Lacher and Wilhelm Geyer. Their form is far from medieval. They fill only the lower part of the window openings, unlike traditional stained glass windows. Their modernity is striking, not to say overwhelming.

Marc Chagall’s stained glass windows in Mainz work differently. In the gothic parish church, whose vaults were reconstructed after the bombardments of the war, the stained glass windows are  impressions of a painter, who ignored both the peculiarity of the architecture and the interior. They are beautiful but aggressively dominate both sacrum and Gothic.

English solutions, of which the Coventry Cathedral reconstruction with a whole complex of stained glass windows by John Piper is the best example, follow the principle of resorting solely to contemporary art. The same artist introduced modern stained glass painting to the reconstructed medieval church of St. Andrew’s in Plymouth. The images focusing on the symbolic message of religious matters were installed in the window framings which mimic the medieval original. Also here the bright-coloured stained glass seems to ignore the character of the  church interior.

The new style of stained glass is directly linked with technology. While Polish stained glass windows are predominantly based on the traditional technology using lead joints, European studios apply this technology only to a fraction of their output. Fusing or moulding have become widespread together with the use of adhesives to combine computer-cut glass. All kinds of artistic ideas are realized, and the creative invention is limited to a lesser extent than it used to be. At this point, it is worth mentioning the great German studio of Wilhelm Derix which has existed since 1866. The range and quality of their works have changed over time to suit the changing style of stained glass windows, the form of artistic expression and the material itself. Thirty years ago, Wilhelm Derix IV took over the studio and decided that his architectural art glass would meet all the technological requirements of designers. He was not afraid to take the risk involved in experimenting in order to interpret the most sophisticated artistic concepts. During the last twenty years the innovative gluing techniques have been perfected, together with combining layers of glass panes and using other materials, such as plexiglass, in the process. Therefore it has now become possible to use composite glass, new techniques of etching which enable to produce fine compositions of glass panels of remarkable artistic quality, or graphics in the form of prints or seemingly freely-shaped touches of enamel. The new quality of stained glass is far from traditional both as regards technology and aesthetics. To see the changes, it is enough to look at the exhibits at the Derix studios gallery in Taunusstein where the firm is based. Although traditional stained glass is also displayed, the majority of the exhibits are totally modern, both with respect to form and technology. Disregard for the graphics of the joint is a common phenomenon these days and the size of the glass panes depends on the size of the furnace and other equipment rather than on the strength of iron rods, or lead.

A review of some representative and modern realizations by Derix seems in place here. One of them is Lutz Haufschild’s set of stained glass windows in St. Andrews Lutheran Church in Toronto (1989), which are among his greatest achievements. By skilful arrangement of gold and yellow stains, the author conjured up an impression of intense light rays, like those of silvery sun light, permeating the interior and thus giving it a remarkable, curious character.

Hermann Gottfried von Stockhausen believes that both modern and contemporary church architecture allows only contemporary stained glass works, particularly as regards figurative glass painting. He demonstrated his original approach to stained glass in St. Quirin’s church in Neuss. His dynamic figures, reminiscent of traditional iconography, are thoroughly modern in style and lead contour.

Gunter Van Look’s understanding of figurative images is slightly different. He combines the geometric background with the dynamics of the figures in the foreground. His stained glass pictures seem gloomy as he works with intense colour which is rather strange to glass painting.

In turn, Sara Hall’s delicately painted and hued laminated glass of the Toronto Spiritan chapel / Laval House (project realized by Derix Glasstudio) presents a new technique which allows lead to be eliminated entirely. The thick and heavy lines have disappeared, leaving the softness and delicacy of abstract, colourful paintings.

John Clark is a prominent figure in the field of glass art. His recognisable style is rich and unique. It is appreciated by critics and investors. Its characteristic feature is the combination of picture and text into one composition. He prepares each work for sacred space with great care, looking for new solutions. In the Falklands War Memorial Chapel he designed a corner window presenting a cross against the background of stormy waves.[2] In Glasgow Cathedral, on the other hand, he joined letters into words and set them in the composition of a glass pane called Millennium Window commemorating the turn of the millennium.[3] His stained glass works for the Stonelow parish church in Glasgow[4] are the most traditional of his works and were made using the technique of etched glass and painting. The resulting light effect resembles the mood and quality of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.

Graham Jones is another excellent stained glass artist. His stained glass windows in the Church of Latter Day Saints, realized by Derix Glasstudio, have become one of the standards of contemporary church stained glass art. The glass sheets are not divided using lead but are etched, silver-plated, decorated with laminated glass pieces, and hidden inside a sealed set. The pure, abstract form painted in soft, transparent colours exudes warmth and certainly represents a new quality of stained glass art. Stained glass which is new in terms of technology and form also appears in historic interiors. Graham Jones is famous for his Poets Corner[5] stained glass window in Westminster Abbey. In 1992 he won the public commission to design the stained glass window in the south transept. It is the only contemporary stained glass window in the historic interior which also shows how modernity can be harmoniously combined with the Middle Ages. The stained glass window was made to commemorate the greatest figures in English literature, and since on the artistic level it had to harmonize with the medieval glazing, the artist used border and fine compositional division resembling medallions.

A similar example of a harmonious artistic combination of old and new experience in stained glass art is presented in the Maria Geburt church in Aschaffenburg-Schweinheim, Germany.[6] Leo Zogmayer’s works are absolutely ascetic. The colours have been reduced to monochromatic blue panels in the presbytery and bicoloured ones in the naves. The drafts amount to an irregular, vertical division of the planes, as if resulting from virtual touches of paint made with a broad paintbrush. The appreciation of such extreme economy of decorative means depends, to a large extent, on the highly subjective impressions of the viewers.

Johannes Schreiter, master of stained glass art of the mid-twentieth century, has no peer. His stained glass art work is a delicate play with his material. He continues to use lead joints but varies their thickness. He makes precise cartoon drawings of the joints, showing their route and thickness to a tenth of a millimetre. He often lengthens the lead joints with a wavering painted line, suggestive of cracks in the glass. His artworks are characterized by a simplicity of graphic structure and colour composition, and are made dynamic and unique by the sophisticated lines. His works are meaningful and powerful. The, hand-cast glass and virtuoso handling of lead are completed with subtle and refined colours. This description perfectly fits Schreiter’s works in St. Mary’s church in Skopas, Sweden[7] or in the place as historically significant as the  Frankfurt cathedral chapel.[8] His works are certainly among the most significant breakthroughs of contemporary stained glass art. He is an inspiration to many young artists who copy his work.

Stained glass, as contemporarily understood, adds variety to an interior. Apart from filling in a window or door openings or constituting an element of interior decoration such as lampshades, it can independently play a key role in the iconographic programme of a church. An interesting example in this respect is Tobias Kammerer’s[9] cross in a church in Hofgeismar, Germany. The cross is made of transparent glass and fixed at a certain distance from the white wall with plain nails. On the wall, right under the cross, there is a coloured stripe as if casually made with a broad paintbrush.

Having briefly reviewed the stained glass art in the world, let us consider the issues connected with Polish sacred art. Most stained glass works in Poland are made for churches and are traditional in character, even if the artists look for some more contemporary solutions through synthetic expressions or simplified drawing.

Since the nineteenth century, Polish art has resorted to many national motifs that have been cherished by numerous generations. Similarly, during the period between the two world wars, when the problems of continuing tradition replaced the problems of regaining independence, our art remained specific and conservative both in terms of the form and content, although there appeared some avant-garde trends. The post-war years were a period of searching for new values and a time when the imposed social realism was confronted with western influences, obviously very limited. However, in ecclesiastical art, which had remained a separate entity for years, conservative traits existed side by side with totally contemporary works of artists such as Teresa Stankiewicz. The guardian of cultural tradition was the church, which even promoted realistic artwork which moderately followed current artistic fashion and trends. T. S. Elliot noticed the role of religion in the development of culture, and appreciated it when he said that if Christianity disappeared, all culture would disappear with it.[10] And yet this conservatism with respect to art was often criticised and it was argued that modern artistic concepts together with their simplifications and synthetic forms should be propagated both among the public and the investors. Especially nowadays, when after years of historical and political turbulence there is complete freedom of artistic expression, the works of art which formally belong to the past are criticized. This literality of graphic message, legibility and clarity of the picture, despite the addition of symbolic presentation, remains a typical feature of Polish stained glass art which, on the whole, differs from worldwide trends and, apart from a few cases, refuses to follow the suggestions or dictates of modern critics. This seems to be its true value which makes it special and unique.

Jerzy Skąpski (Fig. 1) is certainly a great master of stained glass art. The typical feature of his art is the synthetic representation of figures and symbols, determined by the colour composition. He created the impressive stained glass works for the Redemptorists’ church in Gdynia and St Maximilian Kolbe’s church in Oświęcim where the main stained glass artwork is called Oświęcim Martyrs in Heaven’s Glory. His other works can be admired in the following churches: the Blessed Virgin Mary Queen of the World, Murzasichle, the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Krakow’s Azory district, St. Hedwig’s (representations of City on a Hill) and the beautiful rosettes of the Jesuits’ Basilica in Kopernika Street (also in Krakow). He also designed stained glass windows for the Church of Holy Cross, Zakopane, St Lazarus’ Hospice in Krakow and in the church of the Mother of God and the Mother of the Church in Bialystok (featuring scenes from the Old and New Testament) as well as in the chapel of the Transfiguration Sisters in Krakow (brilliant stained glass Stations of the Cross) and in many other places. Jerzy Skąpski has developed his own style and an original colour pattern. The picture, often softly outlined, is subordinated to an arrangement of coloured stains that dominate the works and add character and atmosphere to them. He is an artist of great personal culture,  whose sense of form and colour is fascinating. Each of his works is characterized by original form  and excellent colour selection.

Teresa Maria Reklewska (Fig. 2) is a remarkable artist, personality and teacher. She educated many talented young artists whose style could be described as typical of the master school of stained glass she created. Her greatest works are the stained glass windows in the gothic church of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the Sand Island in Wrocław. She won a competition to make stained glass windows for the presbytery, the apses, the side chapel and the vestibule. On entering the light, spacious gothic church we see in the distance, at the end of the aisles, “colourful walls” which are in perfect harmony with the interior. Against the light background of the walls, the stained glass windows in pointed-arch frames with late-gothic tracery stand out mainly because of the arrangement of coloured stains, which gives them a distinct artistic quality and hue. They present a wealth of theological content and magnificent art. It is definitely one of the best works of stained glass art in Poland. The artist’s early works include small stained glass windows in St. Martin’s church in Warsaw, made using the dalle de vere[11] technique. Another achievement of M. T. Reklewska is the stained glass windows in St Andrew Bobola’s church in Warsaw, made in the years 1984-1991. Their characteristic features are grandeur, specific application of colour and excellent, expressive drawing. She collaborated with Paweł Przyrowski to make stained glass windows for St Francis Xavier’s church in Tokyo, Japan. The windows of the oldest Catholic church in the Kanda district have strong colours, which complement the expressive artistic forms. Their drawings are specific and original; they cover 70 square meters. They continue to follow the style the artist had established earlier.

Paweł Przyrowski, a disciple and collaborator of T. M. Reklewska, is the author of stained glass windows in the church of Our Mother of Perpetual Help in Starachowice and in the chapel of Catholic students’ hostel in Krakow (where one stained glass window portrays the founder of Opus Dei).

Tomasz Tuszko, who also collaborates closely with T. M. Reklewska, is the author of stained glass works for the church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Warsaw-Bielany. According to the author himself, it is the project that perfectly fits in with the interior of the church. His stained glass windows include figurative elements drawn with a bold, dynamic line. The colour emphasizes the designer’s panache.

Jerzy Kalina is an artist who has recently been collaborating with the studio set up by Teresa M. Reklewska and her co-workers. His stained glass windows for the Presidential Palace and The Shroud of Turin for a church in Komorowo near Warsaw are excellent examples of stained glass work. The original style of his cartoon paintings and extraordinary care with which the work was carried out helped create a unique work of art. This is especially true of The Shroud of Turin which, as the authors declare (the concept of Jerzy Kalina was implemented by Tomasz Tuszko), is its first representation in stained glass.

‘Witraże s.c. Architectural & Stained Glass’, the studio set up by T. M. Reklewska in 1975, is involved in technological experiments with glass and looks for new forms of expression for the flat or bent pane, either textured or smooth, monochromatic or coloured.

Another remarkable stained glass artist is Józef Furdyna. He made stained glass windows for the Higher Theological Seminary in Radom in 1991. His works (Fig. 3) are characterized by brave and extensive handling of the topic. The colours are vivid, often limited to red, violet, and blue, with yellow and green stains, and they enhance the atmosphere of concentration. He infrequently uses pastel-coloured planes, but in such a way as to  emphasize the main theme even stronger (e.g. the works in Górka near Szczurowa). His compositions often culminate in the upper part of the picture. They make the viewer look up, as is the case with the stained glass works in Niskowa near Nowy Sącz and in St Paul the Apostle’s church in Bochnia. In the latter, the vertical effect is enhanced by the slender triangular windows.  J. Furdyna’s representations are mainly figurative, and the slender figures with beautiful facial features seem to comply with the composition and merge with the background.  Nativity in this church is a huge stained glass window divided into five sections and placed above the choir platform. It was designed in 1995 and has 50 square meters. Józef Furdyna is certainly an artist with a strong personality, whose visions are realized in the form of impressive works. However, his achievements in stained glass art are just one form of the artist’s expression.

Józef Furdyna’s twin brother, the Reverend Professor Tadeusz Furdyna is also a stained glass artist and one of the main representatives of Polish sacred art. His works include oil paintings, designs of stained glass windows, and designs of sacred interior decoration, which all bear the stamp of the artist’s characteristic, modern style. In 1947, he joined the Salesians and studied in Krakow (theology and fine arts) as well as in Torun and in Gdansk (fine arts). The artist has designed and realized 130 interiors of churches and chapels. In Lodz,  his works can be admired in the following churches: St. Teresa’s, the Mother of God of Jasna Góra (Widzew), Our Lady of the Rosary (na Stokach), St. Francis of Assisi (na Rokicie).

Father Piotr Cholewka, a monk who lives in France, makes abstract representations of religious themes ruled by the composition of the picture plane (Fig. 4) He joined the Benedictines in 1943 and took up stained glass art in 1953. He prepares his windows in the traditional technique of dalle de verre and in polystyrene. His work can mainly be seen in France and Belgium. The only works of his that can be seen in Poland are the stained glass windows for St. John the Baptist’s church in Kupno near Kolbuszowa, completed in 1998. These are entirely abstract pictures, in which the message and meaning are hidden in the arrangement of vividly coloured stains. Their original composition lets the colours fill the interior of the church and create its atmosphere of prayer. Father Piotr Cholewka is sure that this is the best means of expression. According to him, some religious concepts and teachings conveyed in an abstract form can best appeal to the viewers, even to children, and this is the only kind of art that is adequate to express the spirit of our times (unlike historical tendencies).

Tomasz Łączyński is an artist who looks for new forms of expression in glass. He learnt the stained glass art in the studio of T. M. Reklewska. In 1980 he opened his own studio where he makes traditional stained glass and also practices new technologies. His achievements in fusing are an undoubted example of progress in the field.

T. Łączyński has recently made the ascetic stained glass windows for the chapel of the Warsaw Uprising Museum, which fully correspond with the solemn atmosphere of the place. He is also author of the Notre Dame de la Belle Verier stained glass windows in St. Joseph’s church in Ursus. They attract attention and encourage reflection because of their atmosphere and peculiar warm colours; their drawing as well as the scale are reminiscent of medieval models, while their style and mood bring to mind Hans von Stokhausen’s works for St. Johannes church in Neumarkt, Germany.

A name that cannot be omitted at this point is that of Maciej Kauczynski, who has designed stained glass for over 30 years.  He realizes his visions regardless of circumstances if he believes in the value of his artwork. He has developed a unique personal style which is prominent in all his works, supported by extensive knowledge of religious matters. His cartoons show figurative representations that determine the composition of the work, like in the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima, Krzeptowki, where the church windows are  filled with the figures of saints, Pope John Paul II, and Cardinal Wyszynski. They fit in with the character of the church and tell a graphic story of, among others, John Paul II’s life. The stained glass windows in St. Adalbert’s parish church in Krakow are slightly different. They are made up of contrasted colours stains which resemble carpet compositions of earlier periods. Against this background, there appear figurative representations with fragments of cityscape and landscape. The congregation can read quotes from the Holy Scripture while the coloured filter of the stained glass lets in the diffused light but does not allow the outside world to be seen. The stained glass windows for the church in Nowa Wieś have been designed in a similar way. Two stained glass windows for the Nazarethan sisters’ chapel in Komańcza (where Cardinal Wyszynski was imprisoned) are especially noteworthy.

Realistic, figurative pictures with classical composition are a common phenomenon in Polish stained glass. The trend is widely accepted and understood. There are numerous representatives, to name only Tadeusz Borkowski, a young artist who made stained glass windows for the churches in Klikuszowa and Pcim. Their characteristic features include accomplished draughtsmanship and their composition and colours resemble the nineteenth century models that were perfect both as representations of reality and stained glass craftsmanship.

Some projects, such as Jurij Bodnar’s stained glass for Lubcza near Tarnow, that were created in the Krakow studio of Zbigniew Gustab, represent this trend. A similar yearning for historicizing style and the specific artistic expression of stained glass can be seen in the works of Piotr Ostrowski, Wrzesław Żurawski or Andrzej Skalski. It is worth noting that realism of expression appears in the works of many artists. Barbara Pamuła’s stained glass windows for St Jacob’s cathedral in Olsztyn are examples of this trend. They are in striking contrast to other stained glass windows in the same cathedral, designed by Hanna Szczypinska, which feature figures drawn with a strong, decisive line against the background of finely cut glass that makes an abstract mosaic.

The realistic trend, strongly marked in the Polish stained glass art, does not correspond to the current state of art in the world. This, however,  does not mean that the realizations carried out in this trend have no artistic value.

Works of art that abandon classical stained glass panel techniques, instead focusing on the forming and colouring of glass to make it a work of art through the unity of material and function, are also present in Polish stained glass art, as many artists search for new ways of expression. Aniela Kita is an interesting example in this respect. She cultivates many kinds of art. As for stained glass works, her stained glass windows for St. Joseph’s church in Rumia, made in dalle de verre, are outstanding. Their composition is geometric, based on vertical and horizontal arrangements, economical, austere and fully modern. Big blocks of coloured, but mainly white glass, make up seemingly free compositions, with delicate lines, threaded through the picture like nerves, which outline purely graphic motifs,.

The artworks by Jan Bruzda in the church in Dąbie (Fig. 5) are serene, solemn and expressive; Jan Bruzda favours synthesis and simplified forms. Owing to the versatility of polystyrene as organic glass, a construction material used in the making of panels, panes and blocks, which is synthetic resin with favourable art-friendly parameters, the artist made stained glass panels with the multicoloured picture inside instead of on the surface. The same technique was used in the church in Rudno. The technology distinguishes his stained glass works from others, as they have no joints nor lead grid, and yet they are transparent, admit colourful light, and enchant the viewers with their lightness and refinement. Next to deep green or blue stains there appear fragments that resemble water colours. They create an atmosphere of the interior which releases unique emotions, stirred up by contemplating the art.

A similar atmosphere is evoked by Wincenty Kućma’s stained glass windows for the  church in Zawiercie. Wincenty Kućma is a sculptor captivated by glass. Small window panels in the side aisles are filled with fine compositions reminiscent of water colours. They also charm the viewer with their unique beauty. The stained glass windows of the nave and choir stir up completely different emotions because of their intense colours and specific dynamism (Fig. 6).

In conclusion, it must be emphasized that only a small percentage of works and names of Polish artists have been mentioned. However, they seem to represent the Polish stained-glass art. The richness of formal and technological solutions used suggests some reserve in the over-rigorous classification of stained glass works of art. Non-uniform achievements escape  schemes and divisions, which is the value of art. One cannot fail to notice the evolution process of individual artists’ works. .

The chief aim of the paper was to present a relatively complete picture of this kind of art against the background of European achievements. The quality of this kind of art is not determined by individual artistic achievements but also by other works of art, particularly if they predominate.  A critic’s task is, first of all, to make a record of a phenomenon in all the variety of aspects rather than to be content with just praising the best artists.

In general, contemporary Polish stained glass art is impressive. A great variety of artworks, richness of forms as well as constant development of the art place it high in the  European hierarchy. Although it must be noticed that Polish stained glass art is specific in that it is local, mostly traditional, and its recipients do not approve of the avant-garde solutions, this specificity enhances its value and attractiveness and distinguishes it from artistic achievements in the field elsewhere in the world.

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[1] This kind of stained glass is made of white glass panes divided by geometric or floral lead motifs.

[2] The boat-shaped Falklands Islands Memorial Chapel was built at Pangbourne College in 2000. Implementation: Derix Glasstudio

[3] Millennium Window, Glasgow Cathedral, Scotland, height: 4m, 1999. Implementation: Derix Glasstudio.

[4] Stonelaw Parish Church, Glasgow, Scotland, height:2.3 m, 1999. Implementation: Derix Glasstudio. The author does most of the etching himself.

[5] Westminster Abbey, London 1994, height 10 m.

[6] Architectural design: Roland Ritter, stained glass artist, author of stained glass windows and the church equipment: Leo Zogmayer. Implementation: Derix Glasstudio.

[7] Marien Church in Skopas-Huddinge, Sweden 1987. Implementation: Derix Glasstudio.

[8] Implementation: Derix Glasstudio, 1993.

[9] Implementation: Derix Glasstudio.

[10] Quoted after W. Łysiak, Stulecie kłamców, Chicago–Warszawa, 2000, p.115.

[11] This technique uses thick glass blocks joined with concrete.

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