Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
In 1962 Father Józef Sadzik, who was in charge of Éditions du Dialogue arrived at the Pallottine centre in Paris. He established there an important intellectual and spiritual centre which grouped numerous representatives of the Polish émigré community in Paris. Among them was Alina Szapocznikow, who remained in close touch with Father Sadzik. An expression of their friendship was the sculpture entitled Krużlowa, which Szapocznikow offered to Sadzik in 1969. It is a highly original interpretation of the Madonna of Krużlowa (ca. 1400) or in a broader sense – the iconographic type it represents, i.e. a Beautiful Madonna. Szapocznikow’s art is often described as being centred around the human body: the body suffering during the war, the sick body, the body yearning for love and being desired. Krużlowa draws our attention to one more aspect of corporality – the body which was unable to bear and nourish a child. The Christian image of a Beautiful Madonna proved for Szapocznikow to be a good medium for telling people about this experience.
Father Sadzik asked Szapocznikow to cooperate with him on the project of the Centre for Dialogue, which was launched in the early 1970s. For a hall designed especially for the Centre, the artist created The Head of Christ. It is classified as part of the series called Herbarium, for which the artist used casts of the body of her adopted son, Piotr. It seems plausible that the whole series, which seems to be more tightly connected with the Shroud of Turin than a collection of dried plants, had originally been intended as the consecutive Stations of the Cross. This sculpture is commonly believed to refer directly to the suffering of the artist in the period of time prior to its creation, but above all to cancer that the artist was terminally afflicted with during its creation. The exceptional feature of The Head of Christ is that the Crucified is in fact her young, healthy son. This piece seems to be the continuation of the story about Mother and Her Son, or a mother / Szapocznikow and her son / Piotr introduced by Krużlowa. In the case of Krużlowa the emphasis is on her internal drama, the (in)ability to be a mother, as if irrespective of the child. In the case of The Head of Christ her feelings for the son constitute the focus of the story.
Both extremely interesting realisations confirm the importance for the artist of the previously underestimated environment of the Pallottines, especially of Father Sadzik.
Keywords: Alina Szapocznikow, Krużlowa, The Head of Christ, Herbarium, Józef Sadzik, Pallottines, The Madonna of Krużlowa, The Stations of the Cross, motherhood, the cast of the body
In April 1964, Piotr Stanisławski, the son of Alina Szapocznikow and Ryszard Stanisławski, broke his leg while skiing. At the beginning of May, Szapocznikow wrote to Stanisławski from Paris, where she lived with her son and her second husband, Roman Cieślewicz, that she had finally found a place to take care of Piotr. “Finally, after overwhelming difficulties”, she wrote, “we managed, through the intercession of the publisher Julliard where Romek was working, to place Piotrek at a printing boarding school on beautiful grounds in a small chateau just outside of Paris. I went there yesterday and think it will be the perfect place for him until his cast comes off (28. V). […] Can you believe that we found out when we got there that the boys are watched over by two young Pallottine priests from Poland? We’re taking advantage of the holiday today to take him there ourselves.” This fragment, quoted from the recently published correspondence of Szapocznikow and Stanisławski, reveals how the artist encountered the Polish Pallottines, who at the time ran two centres in France: a printing house with the said boarding school in Osny near Paris, and a house in Paris, at rue Surcouf.
A unique figure in this circle was Father Józef Sadzik. At the turn of the 1960s, he was working in Fribourg, Switzerland, on his PhD dissertation devoted to aesthetics in the works of Martin Heidegger. In 1962 he moved to Paris, following his nomination to the post of director of Éditions du Dialogue, based in the capital of France. The task of this publishing house was the translation into Polish and publication of important texts connected with the Second Vatican Council, which was just beginning. Father Sadzik was instrumental in creating an important intellectual, spiritual and religious (all these terms seem equally significant) centre in Paris, which brought together numerous representatives of the Polish migrant community. Alina Szapocznikow was among them, and she remained in close touch with Father Sadzik. As Piotr Kłoczowski observes, “It is difficult to say anything about the religious and confessional aspects of this bond, but for Alina Szapocznikow it was a very important spiritual relationship… It says a lot about what a special person Sadzik was – he had such class that even people who were not closely related to the Church noticed such truth, such spiritual authenticity in him”. An expression of the friendship between Szapocznikow and Father Sadzik was the sculpture entitled Krużlowa, which she offered to her friend in 1969 [fig. 1].
Krużlowa was created at a peculiar moment in Szapocznikow’s artistic career – at a breakthrough moment, we can state now, from the perspective of years. In years 1966–1967 she created many artworks by using casts of her own body, or other women’s bodies, changing them into designer objects. At that time, she started to produce table lamps using casts of breasts or of the lower half of the face. A French critic, Pierre Restany, wrote in the catalogue of the 1967 exhibition: “The artist seems to liberate herself gradually from the long-lasting torture, from the nightmare of war and concentration camps: she is waking up back to life, to the objective and calm awareness of the world.” This observation seemed to be confirmed by the later projects of pillows made of belly casts. Yet, the works that Szapocznikow presented at the autumn 1968 exhibition in Brussels, in Galerie Cogeime, were entirely different. I believe that it was, among others, the political events such as March 1968 or the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia that made it impossible for her to become liberated from the past and the present. This overlapped with another fragment of history – her private history – that is her developing breast cancer.
When we look at Szapocznikow’s art of that period, from the second half of 1968 on, it is clearly visible how the fragments of women’s bodies become embedded (immersed, according to the title of one of the works) in the black polyurethane mass. During that time, Szapocznikow also changed the way of exposing the breast casts. The first casts were transformed, as mentioned above, into lamps emitting light. Later the breasts were no longer illuminated, and became connected with material that deprived them of any attractiveness (e.g. Breast in a Green Cloth, 1970–1971).
In this series, Krużlowa is a watershed work: it is clearly visible how the representation of the female body loses its decorative nature and starts to display its tragic aspect. At this breakthrough moment Szapocznikow reaches for Christian iconography; here, it is the so-called The Madonna of Krużlowa, a small, wooden whole-figure statue of Virgin Mary with the Infant Jesus [fig. 2]. The artist proposed a very original interpretation of this particular representation, or more generally, the iconographic type of a Beautiful Madonna.
From the whole figure Szapocznikow chose only the face of Madonna, ignoring the rest of her body and the Infant Jesus. It is possible that she repeated a strategy popularly used by various publications – often, when reproduced, a sculpture is framed in such a way – yet, undoubtedly, the artist did not intend to show a beautiful face. What is more, due to the transformation she made, we do not lose, as I will presently show, much of the essence of the statue, which is usually distorted when a Beautiful Madonna is reduced to a beautiful face of a young woman / the Mother of God.
Szapocznikow did not use just one reproduction of Madonna but a handful of them, as if she wanted to transfer the message or experience it represents from an individual to a more general level, more identifiable also for herself. In their analyses of the way of describing and depicting Mary, feminist researchers have frequently pointed out that the Virgin Mary, not being one out of many women, but the only / exceptional one, functioned as an unattainable ideal, leaving women who tried to reach it doomed to failure. Effigies of a Beautiful Madonna are exceptional in that they focus more than other iconographic types on maybe not so much the ordinariness of Our Lady as on her emotions as a mother. In Szapocznikow’s sculpture, the multiple reproduction of the image of Madonna, as I have already mentioned, may be interpreted as an attempt to show the common nature of such emotions.
The artist embedded each of these reproductions in polyester resin, thanks to which (as in Souvenirs dating from the same period) she created a three-dimensional form which, on the one hand, preserved the photograph, and on the other, distorted it. The external beauty of Madonna has always been treated as the reflection of her internal beauty. The distortion of the external image, as proposed by Szapocznikow, may be interpreted as the expression of her internal anxiety. This approach enabled the artist to increase the tragic dimension of the figure of the Mother anticipating the Sacrifice of her Son. In the case of Beautiful Madonnas, including that from Krużlowa, we deal with the tension between the peacefulness in the Virgin Mary’s face and expression of her robe and the whole figure (achieved thanks to a strong contrapposto). Here it was in a way formally transposed onto the destruction of the image of the face, its distortion highlighting the anxiety of this apparently cheerful figure.
The artist joined the forms with the embedded image of the face together and added three more elements – the casts of her own breasts. This gesture makes it clearly visible that we are dealing with a very private interpretation of the religious motif and shows in which direction this interpretation is heading. While the body of the Madonna of Krużlowa is covered, as is always the case with Beautiful Madonnas, by a richly draped robe, Szapocznikow exposes it, or rather highlights a certain fragment, the one shown in Mary’s depictions whenever it is crucial to highlight her role in the humanity of Christ – Mary gave Christ human corporality and in this way the capacity to suffer, which was the price of Salvation.
The interpretations of Beautiful Madonnas frequently focus on answering the question which of the figures constituting the sculpture is more prominent. Although commentators agree that the emergence of this iconographic type is connected with Mary’s increasing significance in religious cult, they differ in their assessment of its degree. They either perceive these statues as indicating the crucial role of Mary in the work of Salvation (by giving Christ a human body), or they claim that the focus of attention is the Infant Jesus, whom Mary only entertains and presents to the viewer. It is obvious which interpretation Szapocznikow would find more convincing. In her reinterpretation of a Beautiful Madonna the emphasis is on the fact that it was the Virgin Mary’s body that was necessary for the word to become flesh. That is why we deal with exposed breasts, which at first sight seem to point to sensuality, but they are also (or perhaps primarily) the symbol of motherhood, the physical experience of it, the experience of transferring life – from body to body.
Letters between Szapocznikow and Stanisławski, mentioned at the beginning of the text, reveal that the artist was infertile as the result of an illness (tuberculosis of the ovary) she suffered from in 1948. Piotr, who was mentioned at the beginning of the article, was a child adopted by Stanisławski and her as an infant immediately after their wedding in 1952. From the same letters we learn of the true extent of the artist’s desire to give birth to a child. In June of 1950 she wrote: “I however am very sad, because Prof. Sowiński told me that there is almost no chance of being a mother after such an illness […]. What will ‘grow’ out of me. And given this excess of ‘sensibilité’ that I possess, how do I maintain my equilibrium, when no one will ever call me ‘mom,’ and I will never be able to play with a soft little body smelling of milk?
It is often said that in Szapocznikow’s art the body was the central element: the body suffering during the war, the sick body, the body yearning for love and being desired. Krużlowa draws our attention to one more aspect of this corporality – the body that could not bear and nourish a child. The Christian motif of a Beautiful Madonna turned out to be, for Szapocznikow, in a sense, a perfect medium for relating this experience, the inability to become a biological mother, which was the justification for Mary’s existence, and the justification for the existence of a woman in Christianity, where femininity is identified with motherhood. In Szapocznikow’s version of Krużlowa there is no Child; Madonna’s body, those fragments which can feed the Infant Christ, turn to tears, and Madonna’s face undergoes destruction. In such an interpretation of Krużlowa the religious and private are juxtaposed.
Although there are no records of Father Sadzik’s views concerning Krużlowa, it may be supposed that he appreciated this piece of art very much, for he wanted Szapocznikow to cooperate with him in the Centre for Dialogue, established by him in the early 1970s. The decision was taken not only to found a new institution but also to prepare a room in the aforementioned house in Paris belonging to the Pallottines, which would serve as a meeting place and a chapel. The person made responsible for its architectonic project was Jerzy Chudzik, while Jan Lebenstein designed the stained glass windows depicting scenes from the Revelation of John, and Alina Szapocznikow the Head of Christ [fig. 3].
Analogically to Krużlowa, this work should also be considered in relation to other works of Szapocznikow from the late 60s and the early 70s. A couple of months earlier, still in 1971, struggling with her cancer, Szapocznikow created two quite original self-portraits. One of them is Tumors Personified – a series of lumps with the cast of the artist’s face embedded in each of them. The other is Herbarium – A Self-Portrait, where the artist flattened the cast of her body made in light polyester resin and attached it to a dark-painted board. It may be treated, I think, as an epitaph supplementing Alina’s Funeral created a year earlier. What is, however, more important for the present study, is the fact that Szapocznikow used the same method of representing the body on a number of further occasions. The first one was in two so-called blue herbariums (from the blue colour of the background), one with the cast of a doll’s ‘body’ used earlier in Mad Fiancée, the other with the cast of a fragment of Jan Lebenstein’s face. The second opportunity was the creation of a big series called Herbarium – a collection of several works [fig. 4]. Here the base was the cast of her son Piotr’s body. Various parts of the young man’s body (Piotr was 20 at the time), especially the head, in different sizes, appeared against rectangular boards covered with dark brown paint. The Head of Christ is a part of that series. Here we deal with a flat cast of his head ornamented with thorny twigs arranged in such a way as to look like a crown.
It is difficult to pinpoint the relationship between The Head of Christ and the other parts of Herbarium. In literature it is known as the twelfth (out of fourteen) card of the series. It was labelled so in the first catalogue of the artist’s sculptures prepared by Irena Kolat-Ways and Roman Cieślewicz in the 70s, which was repeated by Jola Gola in The Catalogue of Alina Szapocznikow’s Sculptures published in 2002. Very soon, however, Le Christ was singled out and it became the property of the Centre for Dialogue in the Pallottine centre. The inaugural meeting in this institution took place in December 1973. In the photograph taken there we can see the work by Szapocznikow above the heads of Father Sadzik and Stefan Kisielewski (who delivered a speech entitled Poland between the East and the West). The remaining parts of Herbarium were initially in the hands of the artist’s family, and in 1991 they were purchased by the National Museum in Cracow.
It seems plausible that the whole Herbarium had originally been intended as the consecutive Stations of the Cross. This idea is supported both by the number of boards (fourteen) and the form – bas-relief, which corresponds to the form normally taken by the Stations of the Lord’s Passion in churches and chapels. This would explain why Szapocznikow, after working with a female figure for so many years (there are only a few pieces, among hundreds created by her, with a male figure) focused her attention on her son – then a young man. It would also explain why all cards of Herbarium depict the same person – the same ‘specimen’. It is not consistent with the logic of biological collections, where on successive cards appear new species, or different strains of the same species. It would also serve as the answer to the question why the artist decided to make casts of her son’s body in a way that can be associated with death rather than life.
It is worth remembering that the time when Szapocznikow created the works described here was a period of increased interest in the Shroud of Turin. In 1969 Cardinal Michele Pellegrino, the newly-elected Archbishop of Turin, established a scientific committee whose task was to re-examine the Shroud in order to prove or disprove its authenticity. The scientists were granted access to the Shroud only for two days; still it was a significant step, because earlier access to the relic had been denied, and it had been examined on the basis of a photograph.
The series of Szapocznikow’s works entitled Herbarium seems to be more tightly connected with the Shroud of Turin than with a herbarium. The specimens chosen for the latter are usually beautiful and healthy, and preserved in a way which would not damage their appearance, so that further research on them can be carried out. The representation of the body in Herbarium leaves one with a completely different impression. It is a preserved imprint of the body based on a cast which, as Georges Didi-Huberman described in the book La Ressemplance par contact. Archéologie, anachronisme et modernité de l’empreinte, is both an expression of authentic presence (it was made by touching the body) and its loss (the body that was touched no longer exists). What is more, the cast of the body was transformed in such a way that it seems to be mainly a record of torment. In the case of The Head of Christ the allusion to the Passion is obvious, due to the presence of the crown of thorns. However, other cards of Herbarium also appear to be imprints of a suffering body.
There are no sources which would explain why Szapocznikow decided to use Passion motifs, but there is a high degree of probability that it was influenced by Father Sadzik and the environment created by him. Maybe he was the person who drew Szapocznikow’s attention to Christ’s Passion as a benchmark for the reflection on the experience of suffering. Sadzik, who, in compliance with the recommendations of the Second Vatican Council, intended the chapel of the Centre for Dialogue to be modestly decorated, could not avoid including in it the representations of the Passion. It is hardly surprising that among all the artists he knew, Szapocznikow, who had suffered so much, seemed to him the most suitable to deal with this subject. I leave it an open question whether the aforementioned Head of Christ was meant to be a station of the Way of the Cross or an independent piece.
Szapocznikow, who tried to cope with her own problems by working on Passion motifs is not an exception because, as Renata Rogozińska stresses, the tendency to “perceive the Son of God mainly as Jesus – the man, our brother ‘who was tempted in every way that we are, but did not sin (Hbr 4,15)’ is characteristic for our times.” What is more, the author continues, it is quite popular among contemporary artists to create self-portrait images imitating the iconographic types of Christ’s representations, in this way manifesting “a symbolic identification with His person and His drama.” However, Szapocznikow’s solution is extraordinary, and in a sense ‘troublesome,’ among others because although it is difficult not to consider her biography (by making reference to her own suffering), she used her son as a model for the crucified Jesus. One may offer a simple explanation that she needed to take into account Christ’s sex. Female Christ would not have been acceptable even in such an open environment as that created by Father Sadzik. On the other hand, fitting a crown of thorns on her son’s head is too significant to neglect it here. It gains in importance when we examine some of the photographs from the artist’s archives which document how the casts of Piotr’s body were made. They capture a joyful atmosphere during the cooperation between mother and son and Piotr as a young man full of vitality. But the pieces that were created using these casts – Herbarium, The Head of Christ , Piotr – show an anguished man.
This change in mood may be explained by making reference to the work discussed earlier in the text, namely Krużlowa. I have already mentioned the significance of the psychological relationship between Madonna and the Child (mother and son) in sculptures known as Beautiful Madonnas. The Mother of God is depicted there as calm, but also thoughtful, and somewhat troubled. This mood, as commentators stress, is caused by the awareness of the inevitable martyrdom of her son. The Madonna of Krużlowa is a depiction of Mother playing with the Infant Christ, but it is a play over which the expected Sacrifice casts a shadow. We will not find this dimension in Szapocznikow’s Krużlowa, though it becomes apparent when we consider both works created for the Pallottine centre. Then the playful mood while making casts of Piotr’s body takes on a tragic dimension and The Head of Christ, which was created on the basis of one of them, becomes a completion of the drama sketched out earlier. It seems that her own struggle with illness made Szapocznikow aware of the mortality of her loved ones. Crowning her son’s head with thorny twigs may be interpreted as an expression of the awareness of the fact that his life is also fragile and doomed to annihilation. Deforming the cast, the mother in a way anticipated the pain which undoubtedly awaits also her son.
If my assumption that the cards of Herbarium had been meant as the Stations of the Cross is correct, then The Head of Christ, labelled in the Catalogue of Alina Szapocznikow’s Sculptures as number 12, would correspond to the twelfth Station of the Cross and consequently to the last words spoken by Christ on the cross. It would be an illustration of the extract of the Gospel of John which describes how Jesus noticed below the cross “his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, [and] he saith unto his mother, ‘Woman, behold thy son!’ Then saith he to the disciple, ‘Behold thy mother!’ And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home” (J 19, 25–27). Then The Head of Christ would be another reference to the issue of motherhood, although we deal here only with the depiction of Jesus (there is no figure of Mary or Jesus’ disciple). We must remember, however, that while creating Krużlowa the artist focused for a change on the figure of Madonna and resigned from depicting the Child. I understand it as the change in focus in a continuing story of Mother and Her Son or a mother / Szapocznikow and her son / Piotr. In the case of Krużlowa, the focus lies on her inner drama concerning the (in)ability to be a mother, in a way irrespective of the child. In the case of The Head of Christ, her feelings for the son are the focus of attention.
The status of each of the works described here was completely different in the Paris centre of Polish Pallottines. Krużlowa, as already mentioned, was a gift for Father Sadzik and it functioned in the private space of the centre. The Head of Christ was part of the furnishings of the hall in the Centre for Dialogue. It hung in the middle of the shorter wall, above a place which served either as a podium or an altar. The Head of Christ was better known and much more frequently referred to in publications of historians of art, usually in relation to the terminal illness which the artist suffered from while working on that piece.
Both pieces encourage us to reflect on the place of religion in Szapocznikow’s life and art. We know that this Pole with Jewish roots was never close to the Catholic Church, although, according to the reminiscences of her son, she celebrated Christmas in a traditional way and prior to her cooperation with Father Sadzik, she had created, among other pieces, Mary Magdalene in 1958. It seems, however, that the very special place created in Paris by that clergyman was an impulse for Szapocznikow, who turned to biblical motifs, finding in them the possibility to express the ‘unspoken’. I agree with a British art historian Sarah Wilson that we have so far underestimated the impact of the Pallottine environment on this artist. It was for her, according to Wilson, “the consolation of a place outside the ‘trance of happiness.’” If I understand Wilson correctly, this refers to Szapocznikow’s way of life, who outwardly wanted to be perceived as a happy woman, with a smile on her face, free from misfortunes or even worries. And she was perceived as such, as is apparent in the way her friends remember her. The Pallottine environment, especially the aforementioned Father Sadzik, offered her a different sphere: the sphere in which she could find a means of coping with what she found difficult. It is not really the case that she addressed the problem of both past and present suffering only in those two sculptures. It appears that those emotions dominated her whole art in the last years of her life. It would be useful to trace to what extent the reflections following the meetings with the Pallottines, chiefly the talks with Father Sadzik, had influenced those sculptures which are not connected with religion. This, however, is beyond the scope of this article. To sum up, I would like to highlight the fact that in all the works created for the Pallottines (and Herbarium and Piotr, connected with them) I find one main theme, namely motherhood. In Krużlowa it is addressed more directly, but The Head of Christ also, about which I wrote earlier, is the head of her son with a crown of thorns put on it by his mother.
Translated by Ewa Kucelman and Monika Mazuerk
 Lovely, Human, True, Heartfelt: The Letters of Alina Szapocznikow and Ryszard Stanisławski 1948–1971, ed. A. Jakubowska, transl. J. Croft, Warszawa 2012, p. 226.
 About Father Sadzik see e.g. J. Sochoń, Ks. Józef Sadzik, in: idem, Zdania, przecinki, kropki…, Poznań 1998, pp. 176–180.
 Published in 1963: J. Sadzik, Esthétique De Martin Heidegger, Paris.
 P. Kłoczowski, Z. Benedyktoricz, Dokąd mnie wznosisz, różo złota? O ks. Sadziku, Miłoszu, Lebensteinie i Biblii… – zapis rozmowy, “Konteksty. Polska Sztuka Ludowa” 4, 2011, p. 84.
 This sculpture is known as Motherhood.
 P. Restany, Forma między ciałem a grą (1967), in: Zatrzymać życie. Alina Szapocznikow, Rysunki i rzeźby, catalogue of the exhibition, IRSA Fine Art Gallery, ed. J. Grabski, Kraków–Warszawa 2004, p. 329.
 For more on the subject, see my presentation Szapocznikow and Politics during Alina Szapocznikow: A Symposium, 5 Oct. 2012, MoMA, New York, www.moma.org/explore/multimedia/videos/240/1168 [accessed: 12 Sept. 2012].
 Szapocznikow suspected breast cancer already in 1968 but medical tests did not confirm this illness. She was diagnosed at the beginning of 1969, in spring the so-called breast-saving operation was performed. The illness returned in 1972. The artist underwent mastectomy. In spite of the operation and subsequent irradiation, it was not possible to stop the progress of cancer. The artist died at the beginning of March 1973.
 I wrote more about Szapocznikow’s works for which the artist used breast casts in my book Portret wielokrotny dzieła Aliny Szapocznikow, Poznań 2008, pp. 217–225. I only mention there Krużlowa.
 This very good example of the so-called beautiful style from about 1400 was discovered late in the 19th century in Krużlowa Wyżna, from where it was taken as an exhibit by The National Museum in Cracow, where it still remains.
 See e.g. M. Warner, Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary, London 1976; J. Kristeva, Stabat Mater, in: eadem, Histoires d’amour, Paris 1983.
 See e.g. Z. Kruszelnicki, “Piękne Madonny” – problem otwarty, “Teka Komisji Historii Sztuki”, vol. VIII, Toruń 1992, pp. 31–105, or J.S. Kębłowski, Dwie “antytezy” w sprawie tzw. Pięknych Madonn, in: Sztuka około 1400. Materiały Sesji Stowarzyszenia Historyków Sztuki, Poznań, listopad 1995, ed. T. Hrankowska, vol. 1, Warszawa 1996, pp. 165–185.
 Lovely, Human, True, Heartfelt… 2012 (fn. 1), p. 122.
 In French texts it is known as Le Christ.
 The catalogue prepared by Irena Kolat-Ways and Roman Cieślewicz is to be found in the Archives of Alina Szapocznikow (The National Museum in Cracow, digitalised materials in the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw); J. Gola, Katalog rzeźb Aliny Szapocznikow, Kraków 2002, pp. 199–203.
 Photo by Witold Urbanowicz, www.recogito.pologne.net/recogito_12/foto/12-5-1.jpg [accessed: 12 Sept. 2012].
 See: Gola 2002 (fn. 14).
 Jola Gola stressed this fact in “Zielnik” Aliny Szapocznikow, “Rzeźba Polska, vol. 1, 1986, p. 144
 G. Didi-Huberman, La Ressemplance par contact. Archéologie, anachronisme et modernité de l’empreinte, Paris 2008, p. 18. For more on the subject concerning Szapocznikow’s works see M. Dziewańska, Awkward Objects: Creative Barbarity – On »Awkward« Beginnings, in: Alina Szapocznikow. Awkward Objects, Warsaw 2011, pp. 43–54.
 R. Rogozińska, W stronę Golgoty. Inspiracje pasyjne w sztuce polskiej w latach 1970–1999, Poznań 2002, p. 22.
 Ibidem, p. 123.
 The Archives of Alina Szapocznikow, www.artmuseum.pl/archiwa.php?l=0&a=1&skrot=708 [accessed: 12 Sept. 2012].
 For more on the subject see P. Leszkowicz, Alina Szapocznikow’s “Piotr”, or “The Flesh of My Son”, in: Alina Szapocznikow. Awkward object… 2011 (fn. 19), pp. 189–208.
 Cf. fn. 14.
 In 2012 both pieces were deposited in the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw.
 Fragmenty rozmów. Z Piotrem Stanisławskim rozmawia Joanna Pużyńska, “Pokaz”, 1998, no. 23, p. 26.
 S. Wilson, Alina Szapocznikow in Paris: Worlds in Action and in Retrospect, in: Alina Szapocznikow. Awkward Objects… 2011 (fn. 19), p. 228.