Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Centrum Dokumentacji Współczesnej Sztuki Sakralnej
pl. Ofiar Getta 4-5/35, 35-002 Rzeszów
tel. +48 17 872 20 98

Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska

Ars Vitrea Polona


Contemporary Polish stained glass art is a field still little known and underestimated. A breakthrough in research was made ​​by Jerzy Frycz, who in 1974 published a pioneering paper which, against the background of stained glass revival in Europe, presented the history of stained glass art in the Polish territories in the 19th and 20th centuries, and outlined the activity of several workshops. In subsequent years, inventory work was undertaken, first including stained glass windows in secular buildings in Łódź and Kraków. The full inventory of stained glass from the period in question has not been completed until today, which limits general analyses. This is all the more painful that the resources of stained glass decrease year after year.

Research is being conducted in several centres, the most important of which is Kraków. The studies are undertaken by both academic institutions and individual researchers. Since 1999, the Association for Stained Glass Art “Ars Vitrea Polona” has been contributing to the development of research on Polish stained glass art, mainly by organizing periodic conferences.

What still remains insufficiently clarified are the issues concerning the revival of stained glass art in Poland and the role of stained glass in sacred and secular interiors. Few works of art have their extensive studies. The biographical entries and other works on artists who are known to have designed stained glass windows usually contain only brief or no information about this area of their activity. No stained glass factory has a full monograph, although much is already known about their achievements. There is also no Polish dictionary of terminology.

This poor state of research does not fully reflect the resources and the artistic level of modern Polish stained glass, and the results are not taken full advantage of in studies dealing with issues of art and crafts of this period.

keywords: stained glass, stained glass workshop, inventory, revival, designer, cartoon


‘The history of Polish stained glass is still awaiting its monographer.’[1] R. Fański’s statement, although over a century old, is still applicable today. Polish stained glass of the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century is still a little known and insufficiently appreciated field. Professor Lech Kalinowski spoke of the necessity of research, while inaugurating the proceedings of the 1st conference, organised in 1999, of the Association for Stained Glass Art – Ars Vitrea Polona. The professor, a distinguished authority on medieval stained glass, observed work on modern stained glass with interest and kind attention.

I apply the term stained glass to the totality of phenomena connected with the making of stained glass, starting from a concept to execution, while by Polish I understand all the works found on the Polish territory under the partitions (with respect to the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century) and in Independent Poland (within its borders until 1945), but also works designed by Polish artists, produced in Polish workshops, commissioned by Polish commissioners, or fulfilling one of those conditions. The issues concerning stained glass in East and West Prussia as well as Silesia, belonging at the time to the achievements of German art, remain outside the scope of my interest.


Research on the renaissance of Polish stained glass in the 19th century and its further development has a short history. It stems from the fact that, until recently, interest both in architecture, with which stained glass is closely connected, and interior design of the period has been small.[2]

Contemporaries noted the undertaking of technological experiments and the production of new stained glass in Western Europe[3] and investigated the achievements of their native artists.[4] Julian Kołaczkowski’s extensive study on old craft and art published in 1888 deserves particular attention; the author devoted some space both to the issue of the renaissance and to contemporary achievements in stained glass.[5] In 1911 Stanisław Gabriel Żelenski, the owner of the Cracovian Stained Glass Works, published an article in which he presented the achievements of stained glass of the time and included several remarks on its renaissance.[6] In the interwar period several studies were published, the authors of which (including: Hilary Majkowski, Wacław Boratyński, Aleksander Hrebeniuk) devoted some space to the history of Polish stained glass, presented the newly created stained glass, significantly paying attention both to the designer and the maker.[7] Immediately after the 2nd World War, in 1947, Tadeusz Wojciechowski, a respected stained glass designer, presented Kilka uwag o witrażu (Several Remarks on Stained Glass), concentrating on the issues connected with glass and the 19th century inventions in the field,[8] and Adam Żeleński published a short outline Z dziejów witrażownictwa [From the History of Stained Glass], at the close of which he remarked: ‘We approach now the issue of modern stained glass and the modern craft of stained glass in general and in Poland particularly. The content of these issues is so extensive that it cannot be comprised within one article. I will attempt to return to the subject in the following article’ – unfortunately, he failed to continue the subject.[9] The authors of studies on the history of Polish art devoted only laconic remarks to stained glass, describing more comprehensively only the stained glass oeuvre of Stanisław Wyspiański, Józef Mehoffer, Karol Frycz, Henryk Uziembło or Jan Bukowski.[10]


A breakthrough in the research was made only in 1947 when Jerzy Frycz published an article in which he presented, outlining the renaissance of stained glass in Europe, the history of the genre in Poland and offered a smattering of information on several workshops.[11] The pioneering Frycz’s study was a stimulus to undertaking work on cataloguing the stained glass of the 19th and 20th centuries, and particular interest arose in stained glass in residential and public utility buildings. The first to initially catalogue stained glass in secular objects in Łódź was Tadeusz Byczko,[12] subsequently – and independently – Krystyna Pawłowska at the Cracow Polytechnic as part of the interdepartmental programme Restoration of monument complexes against the development of the city, and Danuta Czapczyńska at the behest of the associate professor Jan Samek from the Monument Inventory Workshop of the Academy of Sciences Institute of Polish Art catalogued stained glass in secular objects in Cracow. Jan Samek published only a short popularising text,[13] whereas the material then collected served as a basis for Danuta Czapczyńska to prepare studies on Cracovian stained glass workshops and the condition of Cracovian secular stained glass,[14] while the excellent culmination of Krystyna Pawłowska’s research was her book on stained glass in Cracovian houses of the 19th/20th century; the author presented the native lineage of Cracovian stained glass against the wider cultural background and introduced its makers, also carrying out new attributions.[15]

Undoubtedly the development of research is furthered by the activity of the Association for Stained Glass Art – Ars Vitrea Polona – established in 1998 in Cracow on the initiative of Professor Krystyna Pawłowska, who repeatedly expressed the urgent necessity of work within the field.[16] The Association regularly organises conferences where the results of research conducted in various centres are presented, both by academic institutions and by individuals.[17] So far the proceedings of the first two conferences have been published.[18]

A certain role in popularising studies on Polish stained glass was played by ephemeral magazines: Witraż, published in Legnica in 2001–2004 and Sztuka Sakralna, the life of which, begun in 2003, was also limited to a few issues.[19] The subject of stained glass appears sporadically in the magazine Renowacje (currently Renowacje i Zabytki) and in the promotional monthly from Cracow Spotkania z Zabytkami, published by the Society for the Protection of Monuments.

Intensified studies have recently been conducted in various areas of the country. Particularly active researchers of sacred stained glass from Upper Silesia are Elżbieta Gajewska-Prorok[20] and Irena Kontny.[21] An interesting yield – mainly concerning stained glass of the region – was gathered by the conference Stained Glass in Silesia organised in 2002 in Chorzów. In Greater Poland stained glass has been the subject of research of, among others, Zofia Kurzawa,[22] Rafał Plebański,[23] and primarily Jerzy Bardoński.[24] In the former West Galicia studies in an advanced state are being conducted by Barbara Ciciora,[25] Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, Andrzej Laskowski,[26] Małgorzata Reinhard-Chlanda,[27] and, most recently, by Tomasz Szybisty.[28] Stained glass in the former East Galicia, mainly in Lvov, has been the subject of research of, among others, Jurij Smimov,[29] the deceased Paweł Grankin[30] and Rościsława Grymaluk – the author of the most comprehensive (although not exhaustive) book Witrażi Lwowi, published in 2004.[31]

The art of stained glass is also more and more often becoming the subject of seminar papers, MA and Ph.D. theses in art history.


Despite the repeated plea by all researchers for the urgent need for cataloguing, only the cataloguing of stained glass in secular buildings of several cities can be considered complete. The paradox is that even in Cracow – the most important centre of Polish stained glass – the collection of stained glass from the described period in sacred buildings is known only to an insignificant degree. Recently Andrzej Laskowski made an attempt to catalogue stained glass in the churches of the Rzeszów diocese.[32] Despite the support offered by the Diocese Curia in Rzeszów, the attempt has not brought about the anticipated results – answers to questions sent to the parishes, formulated as a questionnaire, were returned by only 30% of the respondents.[33] It is worth noting that Stanisław Gabriel Żeleński sent a similar questionnaire at the beginning of the 20th century, but with the purpose of obtaining commissions. The appeal for the cataloguing of stained glass in Greater Poland was published by Rafał Plebański in 2003.[34] It appears that a fairly complete catalogue of modern sacred stained glass is available for Silesia – in part connected to Polish stained glass[35] – the Lubuskie region,[36] Warmia and Masuria,[37] which, however – as explained above – remain outside the scope of this publication.

Usually one would look in vain for information on stained glass on churches information boards and in local guides. It is absent from the majority of volumes of Katalog Zabytkow Sztuki w Polsce [Catalogue of Art Monuments in Poland] and if it appears, it is most laconic.[38] Surprisingly little information is provided by the recently published catalogue Zabytki Sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk [Art Monuments in Poland. Silesia] and the subsequent volumes devoted to sacred art in the Borderland[39] – present knowledge of stained glass in churches in the region was used only to an insignificant degree. Few stained glass works are recorded in the register of monuments and have complete record cards. Also in museums, where they often constitute a significant part of the exhibition, information on them happens to be surprisingly poor and sometimes misleads the visitor. Erroneous opinions about the destruction of stained class happen to be repeated, where, even though not the whole structure but a part is preserved. Apparently, it stems from the approach to this art genre, and from the lack of appropriate studies.

The lack of cataloguing means that the number of stained glass works on the Polish territory executed in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century is still undetermined. Hopes are awakened due to both the extension of the scope of interest of the Medieval Stained Glass Corpus and the establishment of the Stained Glass Corpus concerned with more recent stained glass, but its activity is now only being initiated in Poland.[40] Currently one could only say that, despite the war damage and frequent disappearance of stained glass due to vandalism, theft or the decision of owners, the volume is enormous and it should be counted in thousands. A certain idea as to the total is offered by the record of documents in the Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żeleński archive; only from the period 1914–1939, when a file corresponded to each commission, about a thousand of the files were preserved.[41] When we multiply the addresses from those years by the number of windows – in a given object stained glass could have been made only for one window, or there could be even tens of them – when we add stained glass made earlier in the workshop and those coming from other workshops (Polish and foreign) – we have an idea of the enormity of the impending task.


The moment when the interest in stained glass appeared anew and the renaissance of stained glass on Polish territory took place is being re-identified all the time. Some years ago it was still situated around the middle of the 19th century; today – owing to Tomasz Szybisty’s research – it is closer to its beginning. Until recently the belief has been that the first stained glass in Polish churches in the 19th century appeared during the reconstruction of Cracovian churches destroyed by the great fire of 1850.[42] Those which passed for the oldest were: the monumental stained glass in Orlik’s chapel in the Dominican church in Cracow, representing the Holy Mother with the Infant adored by St. Hyacinth and St. Adelaide, designed by the Dresden painter, Julius Hübner, and executed in the Royal Porcelain Factory in Meissen in 1854,[43] as well as the considerably humbler stained glass in the Franciscan church, executed a year earlier by the Cracovian glass makers Psztykiewicz and Święcicki according to the design of the architect Karol Kremer.[44] Today we know that earlier examples of stained glass did exist[45].

The first Polish stained glass works were: the workshop established in 1874 by Maria Łubieńska, which later took on the name of St. Luke,[46] and the next – Teodor Zajdzikowski’s workshop, opened in Cracow in 1880 (fig. 1–2). Previously stained glass attempts had been made by Jan Puzyna, who had learned the craft in Paris, and Natalia Kicka, the creator of stained glass for the cathedral in Janów Podlaski; Julian Kołaczkowski previously mentioned their work.[47] Maria Łubieńska learned the craft in several foreign workshops: with Geyling in Vienna and in unknown workshops in Wrocław, Berlin, Munich and Paris.[48] Nothing is known about the stained glass education of Zajdzikowski beside the fact that he gained experience during the restoration of medieval stained glass in St. Mary’s church in Cracow. St. Luke’s workshop was still functioning at the beginning of the 20th century and Zajdzikowski’s workshop, run by subsequent tenants, probably closed its activity immediately after the 2nd World War. Łubieńska’s workshop was mentioned in 1911 by Stanisław Gabriel Żeleński,[49] while the memory of Teodor Zajdzikowski was restored only by priest Tadeusz Kruszyński in 1948,[50] and over a half century later Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska attempted a monographic study of his work.[51]

In spite of the predictions proclaimed by Julian Kołaczkowski in 1888 – ‘It seems that this art has no future, for already today it is in decline’[52] – the beginning of the 20th century brought enormous interest in stained glass as a significant element of interior design not only of sacred, but primarily secular buildings, and as a result brought the establishment of the Cracovian Stained Glass Works, founded in 1902 by the architect Władysław Ekielski and the decorative painter Antoni Tuch. After a few years the works were taken over by Stanisław Gabriel Żeleński, and thanks to the co-operation with talented designers and the excellent command of technology, he executed stained glass of the world class, not only in the then developing Secession style, but also – in accordance with the commissioners’ wishes – in any historical style. The sustained popularity of stained glass during the interwar period is confirmed by the establishment of many new workshops, and it is a noteworthy fact that in Cracow all such workshops were established by the former employees of the Cracovian Stained Glass Works (fig. 10, 13, 15, 18).

None of the Polish stained glass workshops attained a full monograph such as the study by Magda Ławicka on the Adolph Seiler’s Stained Glass Institute in Wrocław.[53] Only a select few saw more comprehensive studies: Andrzej Laskowski analysed the activity of Ekielski and Tuch’s works[54] and the provincial Ungers’ workshop,[55] Maria Żychowska studied the works of the Cracovian firm of Roman Ryniewicz[56] (fig. 18), Dalia Vasiliūniene – Władysław Przybytniowski’s workshop in Kaunas,[57] Katarzyna Kabacińska – the Poznań Henryk Nostitz-Jackowski’s “Polichromia”[58], and Irena Kontny – Fryderyk Romańczyk’s workshop, the activity of which, started in Cracow, was continued in Siemianowice Śląskie.[59] Jerzy Bardoński presented the achievements of Stanisław Powalisz’s firm from Poznań.[60] Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska completed the outline of the history of all the Cracovian workshops functioning in the studied period and also of Warsaw works – Maria Łubieńska’s, Franiczek Białkowski’s (fig. 13) and Władysław Skibiński’s,[61] but the main subject of her interest remains the Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żeleński[62] (fig. 7–8, 11–12, 16–17). Apparently, the material concerning Polish stained glass firms is already so rich that soon it will be possible to attempt to compile a dictionary, the necessity of which was signalled at the first conference of the association Ars Vitrea Polona by the Cracovian archivist Szczepan Świątek.[63]

During the partitions of Poland, stained glass produced in active Polish workshops took on the form of special imports and at the same time confirmed a patriotic stand. Witold Magdziński appealed in Poznań: ‘The time has come at last to stop importing mainly rubbish from abroad and giving freely fortunes to the foreign, and hostile at that, people’[64] and in Cracow Władysław Ekielski urged people to ‘endeavour to keep the Polish coin at home’.[65] The products of St. Luke’s Works, Warsaw, are found not only in the region of the Russian partition, but also in Greater Poland and Galicia; the stained glass from the Cracovian Stained Glass Workshop adorns churches on the territory of both Congress Poland and the Grand Duchy of Poznań, and the works of the Poznań “Polichromia” can be found in the environs of Cracow (fig. 9). Also the artists designing stained glass were ‘imported’, among others the Cracovians, Józef Mehoffer and Antoni Procajłowicz,[66] who left their works in Greater Poland.

Throughout the 19th century foreign workshops, which responded to the specific needs of the Polish commissioners, including the paintings on glass representing The Portraits of Polish Kings and Distinguished Men or the Polish emblem,[67] enjoyed great interest. Monumental images of the two most popular Polish Madonnas, the Black Madonna of Częstochowa and the Madonna of the Gate of Dawn, were created in 1895 by the Viennese Geyling’s and the Parisian Charles Champigneulle’s workshops for St. Mary’s church in Cracow.[68] Stained glass for Galicia was most often commissioned in Austrian workshops, besides Geyling’s[69] – in Tiroler Glasmalerei und Mosaik-Anstalt in Innsbruck, but also – in Bavaria, in Franz Mayer’s workshop in Munich. Numerous German workshops enjoyed large popularity in the area of Russian partition and in the Duchy of Poznań.[70]


There are few studies devoted solely, or specifically, to stained glass achievements of designers, even of the most recognised. The most important include the studies of the Reverend Tadeusz Kruszyński, who by the end of the 1940s had described the stained glass for the west window of St. Mary’s Church in Cracow designed by Stanisław Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer and – until then unnoticed – the stained glass by these artists in the presbytery of the Cracovian basilica, as well as the small stained glass with the Osoria coat of arms in one of the windows of the main aisle by Józef Mehoffer.[71] Tadeusz Adamowicz studied widely the Fribourg stained glass by Józef Mehoffer[72] and the unrealized design Virtues and Trespasses by Stanisław Wyspiański – the stained glass was supposed to be placed in the presbytery of St. Mary’s church in Cracow.[73] Anna Zeńczak took interest in Mehoffer’s stained glass in Grauers’ funeral chapel in Opawa and in the Cracovian cathedral.[74] In Marta Smolińska-Byczuk’s study, devoted to Mehoffer’s youthful work, surprisingly little place is occupied by the first stained glass designs destined for St. Mary’s church in Cracow, of which the author notices only the unrealized Psalm on Divine Mercy and the stained glass in the west window designed in cooperation with Stanisław Wyspiański.[75] The author’s attitude is surprising when one bears in mind the fact that it was St. Mary’s Church that served as the proving ground for the future winner of the Fribourg competition. Ignoring Mehoffer’s small stained glass in the north windows of the presbytery astonishes all the more that the author mentions it in an earlier article.[76]

Among the stained glass designed by Stanisław Wyspiański the Franciscan stained glass apparently enjoyed most interest (fig. 5) – still insufficiently appreciated at home, but primarily too little known in the world, not even noticed in the publication devoted to the 140th anniversary of the existence of the workshop which produced it, namely Tiroler Glasmalerei-Anstalt in Innsbruck.[77] Only in 2004 was its turbulent history first explained and was it ascertained that the stained glass in the window behind the main altar and a part of the tracery were designed by Bernhard Rice from Tiroler Glasmalerei-Anstalt.[78] Recently, Professor Wojciech Bałus has convincingly explained the conceptual significance of the Franciscan stained glass.[79] Several years ago the stained glass found in the Cracovian Tadeusz Stryjeński’s workshop was ascribed to Stanisław Wyspiański and only Krystyna Pawłowska drew attention to the signature of Jan Bukowski visible on it.[80] Stanisław Wyspiański’s work in the field still remains mysterious. Ryszard Piechowiak solved one of the mysteries, proving that the mysterious commission the artist received from one of the Greater Polish noblemen, undertaken, but unfinished, concerned the church in Jutrosin.[81] Wyspiański and Mehoffer are the two greatest names, uttered in a single breath while speaking of modern stained glass, but still not everything is known about this sphere of their work.

In biographical entries and studies of artists of whom it is known today that they designed stained glass, this area of work is usually marginalised or omitted. The architect Franciszek Mączyński is a case in point. Until recently his name has been connected only to the competition which he won for the stained glass in Szafraniec chapel on the Wawel Hill and to the glass panelling in the galleries of the Franciscan monastery in Cracow.[82] It was  Krystyna Pawłowska who first ascribed to the architect the stained glass in one of the Cracovian villas and, primarily, the glass in the staircase windows in the Chamber Of Commerce and Industry building in Cracow.[83] However, the list of his designs appears to be long and interesting from the point of view of formality.[84] And again, as in Mehoffer’s case, in the recently published monograph on Mączyński, Rafał Solewski devotes surprisingly little attention to stained glass designs.[85] Mączyński does not even have a biographical entry in Słownik Artystów Polskich [The Dictionary of Polish Artists].

How much there is to be done can again be realised by the reference to the documents of the Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żeleński archive – Adam Żeleński listed 140 names of painters and architects designing stained glass on the record of authors co-operating with the workshop. The list cannot be considered complete, as, during ongoing research, still new names appear. And while it is admittedly the biggest, it is not the only stained glass workshop.


As far as the form of stained glass is concerned, it seems that, in many cases, the decisive say belonged to the commissioner and it was a reflection of both his taste and financial capacities. The commissioners of church stained glass were primarily the clergy of various denominations, headed by the Roman Catholic clergy. Frequently they pointed to a particular pattern and gave specific advice, of the kind: ‘In the window over the large door (…) the splendid image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa should be placed in the centre, over it and at the sides Angels or at least heads of Angles with spread wings, and at the bottom the inscription devoted to the Mother of God by Józef Sebastyan Pelczar, the Bishop of Przemyśl’[86] or ‘Concerning the commissioned figurative stained glass representing the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Immaculate Conception with Karolina Kózkówna (…) the figure should be place in such a manner that the Virgin is facing the people (…) and not the opposite – as on Żuk’s sketch’.[87] Sometimes the portraits of clerical founders were place on stained glass,[88] more often the memory of them is preserved by inscriptions.[89] We owe the innovative and expressive stained glass by Stanisław Wyspiański in the Franciscan church in Cracow to the exceptionally enlightened clerical patronage.

Stained glass for churches was often funded by parishioners, starting from noble collators who also frequently erected a church at their own expense. In her memoirs, Maria Czapska evokes the view of ‘the collators’ lodge with colourful stained glass with Czapski’s and Thun’s coats of arm, in crowns, helmets and plumes’.[90] In the chapel added in 1905 to the Habsburgs’ castle in Żywiec ‘Coloured windows over the stalls’ with the Popes’, the owner’s and cardinal Puzyna’s coats of arm are to be found.[91]

Duke Ireneusz Ogiński donated ‘twelve paintings of glass’, modelled on the Szymon Czechowicz’s work, to St. John’s church in Vilnius.[92]

The donors were usually the members of the parish community, individuals, families, or groups of inhabitants, as for instance the former citizens of Zabawa who emigrated to the United States (fig. 11) The benefactors were guilds – an example is the Cracovian bakers’ guild, which donated the stained glass to the Church of the Holy Cross, with the image of its patron, St. Clement, and associations – among many the Association of Restaurant Owners and Waiters’ Brotherly Assistance, which funded the stained glass for the Church of the Divine Mercy in Cracow, as well as the Lesser Poland Hunting Society, which commissioned the stained glass for St. Elizabeth’s church in Lvov. There were a variety of institutions to be found among the sponsors, to name only the Savings Bank in Tarnów, at whose expense one of the stained glass windows in the Missionaries’ church was produced in that very same place (fig. 8).

The local community was not always willing to bear the costs of stained glass, which is amply illustrated by the history of St. Mary’s church presbytery from the period of its renovation. When repeated appeals did not bring any result, in 1891 the Parish Committee donated, at its own expense, small stained glass quarters commemorating the people connected with the restoration. Their executor, Teodor Zajdzikowski, even funded one window himself.[93] Only later were countess Potocka from Cracow and the Lithuanian nobleman Karol Korwin Milewski to finance two more impressive stained glass windows[94].


Composition, style, iconographic programme and the technique of execution of modern stained glass is a comprehensive issue still deserving in-depth studies.

In short, one could claim that in sacred interiors stained glass alluding to the art of mature and late Gothic definitely prevails, most frequently figurative – with a single character, in an architectural frame, often with symbolic allusion to the Heavenly Jerusalem and the Arc of Covenant, with carpet pattern background, with plant or plaiting borders. The characters are usually represented frontally, in hieratic poses, with faces of idealised features and with great care for detail. The masterpieces of Renaissance painting also enjoyed popularity. The first stained glass produced by Maria Łubieńska for the Warsaw cathedral (in 1874) copied Annibale Carracci’s painting Entombment[95] (fig. 1). In one of the chapels of the parish church in Bieżanów, a district of Cracow, stained glass (from 1897) is found, made according to The Transfiguration of the Lord by Raphael, executed by Tiroler Glasmalerei und Mosaik-Anstalt in Innsbruck. The workshop used the same model several times.[96] The phenomenon of cartoon copying was not infrequent. One of the examples is the unpreserved stained glass in the church of St. Adalbert in Poznań: Blessed Salomea, according to Stanisław Wyspiański’s cartoon destined for the Cracovian Franciscan church, and St. Barbara, according to Józef Mehoffer’s cartoon for St. Nicolas’ church in Fribourg.[97] An early work by Wyspiański and Mehoffer – cartoons with the scenes from the life of Mary for the west window in St. Mary’s church – was used several times for other sacred interiors[98]. The designers were aware of the copying, to which Mehoffer’s words testify: ‘Concerning St. Michael’s, I have no objection against exhibition. What is the destination of the stained glass? Is it made as an exhibition piece? I want the copyright on glass to be restricted on the one hand, as I joined the general Association of artists, aiming at protecting copyright – on the other hand, I especially want to have the possibility to control the copying of my works on glass.’[99]

Lead panelling was often used, usually of round glass or ornamental stained glass with an inserted medallion or plaque representing characters, an illustration of an event or a symbol.

The traditional church stained glass scheme lasted long and was still present during the interwar period. Workshops responded to every commission, producing stained glass of whichever style, using the ready-made patterns published in printed templates[100] or popular devotional pictures, and also the designs tailor-made to the order of a commissioner or a producer. New trends made their way to sacred interiors only with difficulty, the best example of which is the history of Stanisław Wyspiański’s stained glass in the Franciscan church in Cracow and his cartoons for the cathedrals in Lvov and Cracow.

The majority of the 19th century stained glass was produced using the technique of painting on glass or the mixed technique. The beginning of the 20th century brought new understanding of stained glass and at the same time a return to the classical stained glass technique, with the simultaneous utilisation of the possibilities of the mosaic technique.

The composition and technology of stained glass determined the price; therefore many parish priests limited themselves to the humblest stained glass – monochrome lead panelling, sometimes enriched by a frame in a contrasting colour or a decoration painted en grisaille. As appears from the price list of the Cracovian Stained Glass Works from 1910, the cheapest were the geometric panelling of window glass cut into squares, rectangles, rhombi, and hexagons connected with lead – from 10 to 40 crowns per square metre, the most expensive – ‘stained glass (paintings on glass)’ – from 70 crowns for carpet pattern to 220 crowns per square metre for a multi-character stained glass of ‘a group in an architectural frame’.[101]

In the iconography of church stained glass produced in the period under investigation, themes such as scenes from the lives of Mary and Christ and representations of saints – including Polish saints and blessed: Adalbert, Stanislaw (fig. 3), Kazimierz, Andrzej Bobola, Izajasz Boner, Czeslaw, Hyacinth, Jan Kanty (fig. 10), Stanislaw Kostka, Blessed Kinga are frequently encountered. The saints: Joseph, Anthony, Peter, Margaret Maria Alacoque, Elisabeth, Theresa of Lisieux also appear quite often. Besides popular characters, considerably rarer saints appeared on stained glass, for instance those connected with a local cult, such as: Blessed Salomea in the Cracovian Franciscan church, founded by her brother, Boleslaw the Chaste, or Blessed Karolina Kózkówna in the church in native Zabawa (fig. 11). Similar cases concern the patrons of sponsors (St. Ladislaus of Gieleniów was portrayed on the stained glass in the church in Tereszki funded by Count Władysław Grocholski[102]) and the patrons of parish churches – as for instance in Bochnia (St. Nicolas), in the Missionaries church in Kleparz, Cracow (St. Vincent à Paulo), or in the parish church in Kępno (St. Martin). The images of the Holy Mother were especially popular, in particular: of the Immaculate Conception, Our Lady of Lourdes and the Madonna of the Gate of Dawn, and primarily the Black Madonna of Częstochowa, with whom Our Lady the Queen of Poland was identified (precisely this image was selected as the theme of the stained glass for the Crypt of the Meritorious in Skałka, Cracow). During the partitions sacred stained glass frequently included national aspects, an example of which is the stained glass from St. Leonard’s crypt in Wawel,[103] or The Vision of Ladislaus the Short in the church in Korczyn,[104] and most of all, Stanisław Wyspiański’s unrealized cartoons destined for the cathedrals of Lvov and Cracow.

Religious subject-matter appeared frequently also on the stained glass destined for secular interiors, particularly during the interwar period. The most popular representations were the images of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa (fig. 17) and the so-called Nursing  Madonna according to Andrea Solario’s painting.

Sometimes stained glass, both in churches and in private houses, represented church buildings.[105]

A lot of stained glass work destined for secular interiors – churches, chapels, Orthodox churches and synagogues – is characterized by an excellent artistic and technological standard, but there are also objects of lower aesthetic value, to which one can refer the pejorative description of a factory product (still recently employed for stained glass appreciated today).


In the present study, the issues connected with research on Polish stained glass art of the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century were merely outlined. Many subjects are mentioned marginally or not at all. Among them are: the role of stained glass in a sacred interior; the question of stained glass collecting; the significance of academics in popularising this genre[106]. One ought to look at the profiles of creators and commissioners of stained glass. A difficulty in research on stained glass is the lack of precise terminology or a criterion determining the classification of stained glass as art or as artistic craft.[107] Hence it is necessary to prepare an appropriate dictionary. The question of the participation of Polish workshops and designers in international exhibitions awaits research, starting from the world exposition in London in 1862, during which a medal was awarded to paintings on glass painted in the French Laurent and Gsell’s workshop according to Szymon Czechowicz, destined for St. John’s church in Vilnius.[108] However, the most urgent postulate remains the full cataloguing of stained glass on the Polish territory, which would enable further stages of research.


[1] R. Fański, “W fabryce witrażów artystycznych”, Życie i Sztuka (1904), no. 41, p.5.

[2] cf. e.g. W. Bałus, Wprowadzenie, p.7–13, and Ewa Mikołajska, Neośredniowieczne ołtarze w Krakowie, p.142, in W. Bałus, E. Mikołajska, ks. J. Urban, J. Wolańska, Sztuka sakralna Krakowa w wieku XIX, part I (=Ars Vetus et Nova, vol. XII), Kraków, 2004; K. Stefański, Polska architektura sakralna. W poszukiwaniu stylu narodowego, Łódź, 2002, pp.11ff.

[3] Among the first ones were: the article ”O malowaniu na szkle”, Pamiętnik Rolniczo-Technologiczny XII (1834), pp.169–174 and a mention in the book by Franciszek Maria Sobieszczański, Wiadomości historyczne o sztukach pięknych w dawnej Polsce, Warszawa, 1847, p.296.

[4] Especially many notes concerning stained glass were published by Warsaw magazines, among others: Tygodnik Ilustrowany, Bluszcz, Kurier Warszawski and Cracovian Czas – cf. D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, Witraże w Krakowie. Dzieła i twórcy, (=Krakowska Teka Konserwatorska, vol. V), Kraków, 2005, pp.29–37.

[5] J. Kołaczkowski, Wiadomości tyczące się przemysłu i sztuki w dawnej Polsce, Kraków–Warszawa, 1888, pp.584–586.

[6] S. G. Ż. [Stanisław Gabriel Żeleński], ”Co to jest witraż, a co mozaika”, Kalendarz Towarzystwa Szkoły Ludowej, 1911, pp.127–132.

[7] H. Majkowski, ”O witrażach w szczególności oraz o twórczości Henryka Jackowskiego”, Gazeta Malarska (1929), no.7, pp. 6–8.

Idem, ”O starych witrażach, witrażownictwie i twórczości Jana Piaseckiego”, Rzeczy Piękne (1930), no. 4–6, pp.86–95.

Idem, ”Witraże i witrażownictwo”, Gazeta Malarska (1930), no.10, pp.1–4.

W. Boratyński, ”Na progu odrodzenia witrażu”, Tęcza (1936), no.5, pp.22–28.

Helena d`Abancourt de Franqueville,”Witraże w sztuce religijnej”, in O polskiej sztuce religijnej,  ed. J. Langman, Katowice, 1932, pp. 99–141.

A. Hrebeniuk, Witraże – mozaiki. Sztuka barwnych szkieł i kamyków, Kraków, 1938.

[8] T. Wojciechowski, ”Uwagi o witrażu”, Przegląd Artystyczny (1947), no.6–7, p.12.

[9] A. Żeleński, “Z dziejów witrażownictwa”, Przegląd Artystyczny (1947), no.6–7, p.12; no.9–12, p.13; comp.:  Z. Sroczyński, Żeleńscy, Warszawa, 1997, p.133. Not all the information given by Adam Żeleński is correct.

[10] Cf. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p.20, footnote 16.

[11] J. Frycz, “Odrodzenie sztuki witrażowej w XIX i XX wieku”, Szkło i Ceramika XXV (1974), no.6, pp.177–184.

[12] T. Byczko, “Witraże łódzkiej architektury świeckiej na przełomie XIX i XX wieku”, in Sztuka łódzka. Materiały z Sesji Naukowej Oddziału Łódzkiego Stowarzyszenia Historyków Sztuki, Warszawa–Łódź, 1977, pp.71–92. After many years the subject returned in the popular science book: M. Ertman, Łódzkie witraże, Łódź, 1990. Recently it was mentioned by W. Jordan, W kręgu łódzkiej secesji, Łódź, 2006, pp.237–247.

[13] J. Samek, ”Krakowskie witraże secesyjne”, Spotkania z zabytkami (1986), no.1, pp.21–24.

[14] D. Czapczyńska, ”Uwagi o działalności krakowskich firm witrażowniczych w okresie od końca XIX wieku do 1939 r. (Na marginesie prac nad katalogiem witraży w kamienicach i budowlach użyteczności publicznej w Krakowie), Biuletyn Historii Sztuki XLVII  (1985), no.2, pp.211–216.

Eadem, „Świeckie witraże w Krakowie. Uwagi o działalności krakowskich  zakładów witrażowniczych od końca XIX wieku do roku 1939”, Rocznik Krakowski LIII (1987), pp.139–148.

Eadem, “Dlaczego giną świeckie witraże w Krakowie?”, Ochrona Zabytków XLI (1988), no.2, pp.132–136.

[15] K. Pawłowska, Witraże w kamienicach krakowskich z przełomu wieków XIX i XX, Kraków, 1994.

Eadem, “Witraże w kamienicach krakowskich z przełomu wieków XIX i XX”, Teka Komisji Urbanistyki i Architektury XV (1981), pp.59–68.

[16] K. Pawłowska, „Wprowadzenie”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, eds. K. Pawłowska, J. Budyn-Kamykowska, Kraków, 2000, pp.5–7.

Eadem, ”Stan badań nad sztuką witrażową w Polsce”, in Witraże na Śląsku. Materiały sesji Górnośląskiego Oddziału Stowarzyszenia Historyków Sztuki Chorzów, 2001, ed. T. Dudek-Bujarek, Katowice, 2002, pp.7–12.

Eadem, ”Dziedzictwo sztuki witrażowej w Polsce. Stan badań, stan zabytków, konserwacja, nowe witraże w zabytkowych budowlach”, Ochrona Zabytków (2005), no.1, pp.41–54.

[17] I – The Heritage of Polish Stained Glass – Status of Research – organised in co-operation with the National Museum in Cracow – Józef Mehoffer’s House and the General Consulate of the Republic of Austria in Cracow, took place on  the 11th–12th of June 1999 in Cracow.

II – Stained Glass in Poland organised in co-operation with the Art Historians Association – Poznań Branch, took place on the 8th–9th of June 2001 in Poznań.

III – Stained Glass in Architecture – Architecture in Stained Glass organised in co-operation with the Museum of Architecture in Wrocław, took place on the 17th–18th of October 2003.

IV – Stained Glass in Monuments. Between Conservation and Modern Art organised in co-operation with the Castle Museum in Malbork, took place on the 21st–23rd of October 2005.

V – To Stanisław Wyspiański on the 100th Anniversary of Death organised jointly with Creative Association „Stanisław Wyspiański’s House” and in co-operation with the Medical Association of Cracow, took place on the 11th–13th of May 2007 in Cracow.

[18] Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, eds. K. Pawłowska, J. Budyn-Kamykowska, Kraków, 2000.

Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, eds. K. Pawłowska, J. Budyn-Kamykowska, Kraków, 2002.

[19] Editor-in-chief of Witraż was Zbigniew Brzeziński, a stained glass conservator; editor-in-chief of Sztuka Sakralna was Małgorzata Musialik.

[20] E. Gajewska-Prorok, „Witraże na Śląsku w XIX i pierwszej połowie XX wieku. Projektanci i wytwórnie”, Roczniki Sztuki Śląskiej XVII (1999), pp.93–110.

Eadem, “Witraże na Śląsku w XIX i pierwszej połowie XX wieku”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.48–57.

Eadem, “Katalog wytwórni i projektantów czynnych na Górnym Śląsku”, in Witraże na Śląsku, pp.155–175.

Eadem and S. Oleszczuk, Witraże na Śląsku. XIX i pierwsza połowa XIX wieku, Leipzig, 2001.

[21] I. Kontny, “Ikonografia górnośląskich i zagłębiowskich witraży sakralnych w II ćwierci XX wieku”, in Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, pp.154–171.

Eadem, Witraże mysłowickie, Mysłowice, 2002.

Eadem, Witraż w górnośląskim pejzażu sakralnym. Sztuka witrażowa w zabytkowych kościołach górnośląskich na wybranych przykładach, paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005, accepted for publication.

[22] Z. Kurzawa, “Witraże poznańskich kościołów”, in Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, pp. 14–25.

[23] R. Plebański, ”Postulat utworzenia katalogu witraży wielkopolskich”, Wielkopolski Biuletyn Konserwatorski II  (2003), pp.164–177.

[24] J. Bardoński, ”Tradycja i współczesność pracowni witraży Powalisz w Poznaniu”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.180–187.

Idem, Witrażownictwo w Wielkopolsce w pierwszej połowie XX wieku, in Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, pp.156–153.

[25] B. Ciciora, Witraże Jana Matejki, paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wrocław in 2003.

Eadem, Jan Matejko i początki krakowskich witraży, paper presented at the 5th conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Cracow in 2007.

[26] A. Laskowski, ”Działalność Krakowskiego Zakładu Witrażów Wł. Ekielskiego i A. Tucha”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.132–149.

Idem, “The stained glass revival in Galicia in the second half of  the nineteenth century”, The Journal of Stained Glass XXV (2001), pp.10–26.

Idem,”Między rzemiosłem a sztuką. Saga rodu Ungerów”, in Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, pp.116–133.

Idem, Rola architektów w odrodzeniu sztuki witrażowej w Galicji na przełomie XIX i XX w, paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wroclaw in 2004, accepted for publication.

Idem, Witraże galicyjskich katedr a proces odrodzenia sztuki witrażowej w Galicji u schyłku XIX i na początku XX w., paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005, accepted for publication.

[27] M. Reinhard-Chlanda, ”Witraże kościołów Kleparza. Z prac nad Katalogiem Zabytków”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.124–131.

Eadem, Rola witraży w architekturze synagog postępowych na przykładzie Templum w Krakowie, paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wroclaw in 2004, published in Rocznik Krakowski LXXII (2006), pp.141–152.

Idem, Witraż w kaplicy Bramy Floriańskiej [Stained glass in St. Florian’s Gate chapel], paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art  in Malbork in 2005.

[28] T. Szybisty, Poglądy Józefa Łepkowskiego na rolę i formę witrażu we wnętrzach zabytkowych oraz związane z jego działalnością realizacje witrażowe w Krakowie, paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005.

Idem, Witraż Juliusa Hübnera w krakowskim kościele dominikanów, paper presented at the 5th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Cracow in 2007.

Idem, XIX-wieczne witraże kościołów i klasztorów Krakowa (1815–1914), Ph.D. thesis supervised by professor Marek Zgórniak at the Jagiellonien University Art History Department.

Idem, “Najstarsze realizacje witrażowe na ziemiach polskich w wieku XIX”, article in the present volume.

[29] J. Smirnow, “Zespół witraży katedry rzymsko-katolickiej we Lwowie”, in  Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, pp.79–91.

Idem, Witraże Jana Henryka Rosena (polski okres twórczości 1925–1937), paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wrocław in 2003, prepared for publication.

Idem, Witraże Kazimierza Sichulskiego (Lwów – Stare Sioło – Tarnopol), paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005, accepted for publication.

[30] Mainly on stained glass in secular interiors: P. Grankin, “Witrażi Lwowa (do 1939 roku)”, Budujemy Inaksze (1999), pp.42–43.

Idem, “Imitacje witraży w kamienicach Lwowa z początku XX wieku”, in: Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, pp.172–179.

Idem and O. Łysenko, Witraż jako detal architektoniczny w dekoracji traktu wejściowego lwowskich kamienic końca XIX i początku XX wieku, paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wrocław in 2003.

Idem, Witraże cerkwi wołoskiej na tle historii konserwacji zabytku, paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005.

[31] R. Hrymaluk,  “The stained glass panels of the Lviv stone-houses at the break of the 19th and 20th century” in Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi IX International Colloquium. Kraków 1998. 14th–16th May. Stained Glass as Monumental Painting. Proceedings.

Idem, Witrażi Lwowi, Lvov, 2004.

[32] A. Laskowski, “Witraże w kościołach diecezji rzeszowskiej w świetle ankiety przeprowadzonej w 1999 roku”, Rzeszowska Teka Konserwatorska II (2000), pp.371–386.

[33] Ibid, p. 372.

[34] Plebański, 2003.

[35] Gajewska-Prorok and Oleszczuk, 2001.

[36] M. Danowska, Zabytkowe witraże sakralne w województwie lubuskim, paper presented at the 5th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in 2007, accepted for publication in Szkło i Ceramika.

[37] I. Liżewska, Wybrane realizacje witrażowe w kościołach Prus Wschodnich na przełomie XIX i XX wieku and W. Wojnowska, Działalność pracowni witrażowej H. Oidtmanna w Prusach Wschodnich i Zachodnich w 2 poł. XIX i 1 poł XX w., papers presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005, accepted for publication.

[38] In Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce [KZS], vol. IV: Miasto Kraków, part II: Kościoły i klasztory Śródmieścia 1, eds. A. Bochnak and J. Samek, Warszawa, 1971, p. 113 – the enumeration of the subjects of 8 stained glass windows in the church according to Stanisław Wyspiański’s design, without the executioner’s name mentioned; the authors did not pay attention to the stained glass in aisle windows and to Zdzisław Gedliczka’s stained glass in the Holy Mother of Sorrows’ chapel; p. 118 – information on the stained glass in gallery windows, designed by Franciszek Mączyński, with the use of glass panelling from 1778, and the stained glass with blessed Salomea, designed by Władysław Rossowski; omission of the 17th century small stained glass framed in one of the windows and the information about executioners; in part VII, published considerably later, in the text devoted to the Divine Mercy Church, the existence of stained glass from 1908 was noted and the fact of their restoration in 1947, but it was not mentioned that one of the stained glass windows was then designed by Adam Bunsch. The designer of the stained glass from the beginning of the 20th century was not given – it was Stefan Matejko, and the executioner – the Cracovian Stained Glass Works; cf. KZS, vol. IV: Miasto Kraków, part VII: Zwierzyniec, Nowy Świat, Półwsie Zwierzynieckie. Kościoły i klasztory, eds. J. Daranowska-Łukaszewska and R. Henoch-Marendziuk, Warszawa, 1995, p.51.

[39] Zabytki Sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warszawa, 2006; Materiały do Dziejów Sztuki Sakralnej na Ziemiach Wschodnich Rzeczypospolitej, ed. J. K. Ostrowski (until now 18 volumes have been published).

[40] Polish national section of Medieval Stained Glass Corpus was created in 1952; for many years it was chaired by Professor Lech Kalinowski. Currently the activities of the Polish section of Stained Glass Corpus are led by Professor Wojciech Bałus, under the patronage of Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow.

[41] Live record of the archive store conducted between the 10th of October and 30th of November 1999 at the seat of the Stained Glass and Artistic Glass Panelling section of the Cracovian Service Facility “Renowacja”, typescript in the Municipal Monuments Conservator’s archive in Cracow.

[42] Laskowski 2001, p.13; Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p.30 et passim.

[43] cf. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, pp. 30–31; Szybisty 2007. The stained glass is preserved in vestigial form. Hübner presented the cartoons to the city, of which already Władysław Łuszczkiewicz informed, cf.  “Witraż w kościele św. Trójcy ks. ks. dominikanów w Krakowie”, Tygodnik Ilustrowany (1883) no.15, p.239. Currently they are to be found in the National Museum in Cracow.

[44] Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p.32.

[45] cf. Tomasz Szybisty’s article in the present volume.

[46] So far the most information on the workshop work has been provided by: Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, pp. 33–36.

[47] Kołaczkowski 1888, p.586; Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p.36; Puzyna Jan Wincenty, biographical entry by M. Biernacka, in Słownik Artystów Polskich, eds. U. Makowska and K. Mikocka-Rachubowa, Warszawa, 2007, pp.152–153.

[48] Fański 1904, p.5; “Witraże kościelne”, Kurier Poznański XXXIII (1904), no.214, p.3 – I would like to thank Ryszard Piechowiak for making the source extract accessible.

[49] Żeleński 1911, p. 128.

[50] Rev. T. Kruszyński, “Witraż Józefa Mehoffera i Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w fasadzie zachodniej kościoła Mariackiego w Krakowie”, in Sprawozdania z czynności i posiedzeń Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności za rok 1948, Kraków, 1949, pp.475.

[51] Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, “Teodor Andrzej Zajdzikowski (1840–1907) pionier krakowskich witrażowników”, Rocznik Krakowski LXIX (2003), pp.151–170.

[52] Kołaczkowski 1888, p.586.

[53] M. Ławicka, Zapomniana pracownia. Wrocławski Instytut Witrażowy Adolpha Seilera (1846–1945), Wrocław, 2002.

[54] Laskowski 2000.

[55] Laskowski 2002.

[56] M. J. Żychowska, “70 lat istnienia pracowni witraży”, Witraż (2001), no.2, pp.30–32.

[57] D. Vasiliūniene, ”Kowieńska pracownia witraży Władysława Przybytniowskiego Maria, in Litwa i Polska. Dziedzictwo sztuki sakralnej, eds. W. Boberski and M. Omilanowska, Warszawa, 2004, pp.215 Co to jest witraż 226.

[58] K. Kabacińska, ”Polichromia Henryka Nostitz-Jackowskiego (1912–1948)”, Kronika miasta Poznania (1990), no.2, pp.39–47.

[59] I. Kontny, Obecność Stanisława Wyspiańskiego na Górnym Śląsku i w Zagłębiu, paper presented at the 5th conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Cracow in 2007, accepted for publication in Szkło i Ceramika.

[60] Bardoński 2000.

[61] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, Witraż i jego autorzy. Kilka uwag o pracowniach witrażowych w dobie Wyspiańskiego, paper presented at the 5th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Cracow in 2007.

[62] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, ”Krakowski Zakład Witrażów, Oszkleń Artystycznych i Mozaiki Szklanej S. G. Żeleński. Uwagi na marginesie prac nad monografią”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.150–161.

[63] S. Świątek, “Z prac nad słownikiem firm witrażowych w Polsce w XX wieku”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, p.188–193.

[64] W. Magdziński, ”Sztuka malowania na szkle (witraże)”, Literatura i Sztuka supplement to Dziennik Poznański III (1911), no.38, p.597.

[65] Letter to Father Peregryn Haczela of the 5th of March 1904; Copies of letters of Władysław Ekielski and Antoni Tuch’s Cracovian Stained Glass Works, copy 62, the Cracovian Stained Glass and Glass Mosaic Works S. G. Żeleński archive.

[66] T. Nowak, Polichromie Antoniego Procajłowicza w Wielkopolsce, MA thesis in the Non-Stationary School of Visual Education for Teachers at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań, typescript, 1978.

Sąsiad, “Nowy kościół w Kamieńcu pod Grodziskiem”, Praca XVII (1913), no.38, pp.1191–1193 – I would like to thank Ryszard Piechowiak for the information; Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p.92.

[67] Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p.41.

[68]According to the design of the Vilnius painter Tadeusz Dmochowski.

[69] A. Laskowski, Wiedeń odnaleziony w Cieklinie. O galicyjskich realizacjach wiedeńskiego zakładu Carla Geylinga, paper presented at the 5th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Cracow, in 2007.

[70] J. Dominikowski, “Łódzkie witraże przełomu stuleci”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.64–83; Plebański 2003.

[71] Kruszyński 1949.

Idem, “Pierwsze prace witrażowe Stanisława Wyspiańskiego i Józefa Mehoffera w kościele Mariackim w Krakowie”, Prace Komisji Historii Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności IX (1948), p.262–267.

Idem, “Szkicownik Józefa Mehoffera  i jego pierwsze witrażyki w kościele Mariackim w Krakowie”, Prace Komisji Historii Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności IX (1948), pp.269–271.

[72] T. Adamowicz, Witraże fryburskie Józefa Mehoffera. Monografia zespołu, Wrocław, 1982.

[73] T. Adamowicz, ”Stanisława Wyspiańskiego Cnoty i Występki”, Rocznik Historii Sztuki VII (1969), pp.244–262.

[74] A. Zeńczak, ”Zespół witraży Józefa Mehoffera w kaplicy grobowej rodziny Grauerów w Opawie”, Rozprawy Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie. Seria nowa I (1999), pp.83–109.

Eadem, ”Witraże Józefa Mehoffera w nawach katedry na Wawelu”, in Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, pp.32–47.

[75] M. Smolińska-Byczuk, Młody Mehoffer, Kraków, 2004, pp.40, 64. The author studies widely only the stained glass for the chapel of the palace in Balice (pp.93–96) and for the cathedral in Lvov (pp.103–108).

[76] Edem, ”Rękodzielnik witraży – edukacja witrażownicza Józefa Mehoffera, Witraż (2002),  no.2–3, pp.46–51.  Despite the author’s statement the sketchbook referred to by her was known to the rev. Tadeusz Kruszyński, who also published some of the drawings – cf. Kruszyński 1948.

[77] cf. R. Rampold, 140 Jahre Tiroler Glasmalerei und Mosaik-Anstalt 1861–2001, Innsbruck, 2002.

[78] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, „Dzieje witraży Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w kościele oo. franciszkanów w Krakowie“, Rocznik Krakowski LXX (2004), pp.61–88.

[79] W. Bałus, ”Wyspiański i tradycja. Na przykładzie witrażu ze św. Franciszkiem, Teksty drugie (2004), issue 4, pp.97–114.

Idem, “O dwóch wyobrażeniach Boga w malarstwie sakralnym na przełomie XIX i XX wieku”, in Figury i figuracje, Warszawa, 2006, pp.127–152.

Idem, “Stanisław Wyspiański i krakowski kościół Franciszkanów”, in Studia z dziejów kościoła franciszkanów w Krakowie, ed. Rev. Z. Kliś, Kraków, 2006, pp.217–234. See also: M. Romanowska, “Rozważania nad odczytaniem projektu witraża przy szafie z Bogiem Ojcem”, in Mowa i moc obrazów, prace dedykowane profesor Marii Poprzęckiej, Warszawa, 2005, pp.106–109.

[80] Pawłowska 1994, p.197.

[81] R. Piechowiak, „Wyspiańskiego do witraży …”. Kilka słów o podjętych przez artystę, a niezrealizowanych projektach witrażowych do kościoła św. Elżbiety w Jutrosinie, paper presented at the 5th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Cracow in 2007, prepared for publication.

[82] R. Solewski, ”Stary Kraków Franciszka Mączyńskiego”, Rocznik Krakowski LXII (1996), p.123 et passim.

[83] Pawłowska 1994, p.118.

[84] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, Franciszka Mączyńskiego miniatury architektoniczne, paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wrocław in 2003 (prepared for publication) and – in expanded version – at the Cracow Heritage Society in 2004; U. Bęczkowska, “Architektura klasztoru ss. karmelitanek bosych przy ul. Łobzowskiej w Krakowie”, Modus. Prace z Historii Sztuki V (2004), p.85.

[85] R. Solewski, Franciszek Mączyński (1874–1947) krakowski  architekt, Kraków, 2005.

[86] Bishop Sebastian Pelczar’s letter to the Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żeleński of the 20th of April 1912, fascicle of the records, the Works archive.

[87] Priest Władysław Mendrala’s letter to the Cracovian Stained Glass Works of the 9th of September 1922, the Works archive, sign. As 26.

[88]For example priest Antoni Dobrzański’s stained glass portrait, once in the parish church in Myślenice, presently preserved in the parsonage– cf. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, p. 36. On placing the characters of the founders on stained glass cf. Rev. A. Brykczyński, Dom Boży to jest Praktyczna wskazówka budowania, naprawiania i utrzymania kościołów …, Warszawa, 1897, p.63.

[89] For example, in one of the quarters of the stained glass in the west window of St. Mary’s church,there is a text commemorating the canon priest Jan Bukowski, the generous donor to the renovation of the church aisle and the founder of the stained glass, and on the stained glass in the chapel of the house in Kanonicza Street 21 where he lived – his initials.

[90] M. Czapska, Europa w rodzinie. Czas odmieniony, Kraków, 2004, p.141.

[91] Kaplica zamkowa w Żywcu, Przegląd Techniczny XLIV (1906), no.32, pp.380–381.

[92] W. Korotyński, ”Obrazy na szkle przeznaczone do kościoła św. Jana w Wilnie”, Tygodnik Ilustrowany (1863), no.175, p.45.

[93] W. Łuszczkiewicz, Roboty w kościele N. Maryi Panny w r. 1891, Kalendarz Krakowski Józefa Czecha na rok 1892, pp.59–60; Kruszyński 1948.

[94] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, O witrażach z końca XIX wieku w dwóch gotyckich kościołach w Krakowie, paper presented at the 4th Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Malbork in 2005, accepted for publication.

[95] F. M. S. [Franciszek Maria Sobieszczański], ”Okno malowane na szkle w kościele św. Jana w Warszawie”, Tygodnik Ilustrowany (1875), no.38, p.356.

[96] From the letter of Tiroler Glasmalerei und Mosaik-Anstalt to priest Józef Kufel, the parish priest of the church in Bieżanów of the 20th of November 1897, the archive of the Birth of the Virgin Mary parish in Cracow-Bieżanów.

[97] Z. Kurzawa, A. Kusztelski, Historia kościołów Poznania. Przewodnik, Poznań, 2006, pp.106–107.

[98] The original stained glass was made by Teodor Zajdzikowski in 1891. The Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żeleński used it in the execution of the stained glass for the church in Drohobych in 1907–1910 and for the chapel of gynaecological-maternity clinic in Cracow – nearly thirty years thence.

[99] Józef Mehoffer’s letter to the Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żelenski of the 15th of June 1913, the works archive.

[100] cf. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005, pp.98–100.

[101] Price-list of Products of the Cracovian Stained Glass and Mosaic Works, ephemeral print, private property.

[102] ”W Tereszkach na Wołyniu”, Tygodnik Ilustrowany (1911), no.1, p.12.

[103] B. Ciciora, Witraże Jana Matejki, paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the Association for Stained Glass Art in Wrocłąw in 2003, prepared for publication.

[104] Bishop Józef Sebastian Pelczar’s letter to the Cracovian Stained Glass Works S. G. Żeleński of the 20th of April 1912, the works archive.

[105]An example is the stained glass in the church in Strzałków with quarters representing the old and the new churches, executed by the Poznań Henryk Nostitz-Jackowski’s firm “Polichromia”, cf. Plebański 2003, fig. 15–16, and the stained glass designed by Franciszek Mączyński in the new church in Komorowice, with a view of the old historic church (later moved to Cracow).

[106] Szybisty 2005.

[107] cf. W. Ślesiński, Techniki malarskie. Spoiwa mineralne, Warszawa, 1983, pp.163–198.

M. Ławicka, Zapomniana pracownia, p.15.

B. Fekecz-Tomaszewska and M. Ławicka, ”Problemy z nazewnictwem technik witrażowych”, in Sztuka witrażowa w Polsce, p.220–227.

Stefania Krzysztofowicz-Kozakowska even described Stanisław Wyspiański’s stained glass in the artistic craft section – Sztuka Młodej Polski, Kraków, 1999, p.40.

[108] The general plan and detailed patterns were to be provided by Jan Kanty Wilczyński, the cartoons were to be designed by Jan Puzyna – cf. Korotyński 1863, Biernacka 2007.

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