Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Centrum Dokumentacji Współczesnej Sztuki Sakralnej
pl. Ofiar Getta 4-5/35, 35-002 Rzeszów
tel. +48 17 872 20 98

Irena Kontny

Silesian Cultural Heritage Center in Katowice

Abstract:

The article concerns the influence of Stanisław Wyspiański’s art on the stained-glass design projects of Fryderyk Romańczyk which the latter executed for the churches of Upper Silesia and the Dąbrowa Basin. In the 30s and 40s of the previous century, Romańczyk ran a well-prospering stained-glass studio whereas his art work was characterized by a good technique and clear inspiration with the art work of the Art Nouveau period in its native Young Poland variety, in which an important role was played by motifs inspired by the local Polish flora.

At the beginning of the article, the authoress also discusses the only example of a stained-glass window designed by Stanisław Wyspiański, an exceptional visionary in Polish art and theatre, to be found on the territory of the present-day province of Silesia. The above stained-glass window which is to be found in the chapel of the Metropolitan Curia in Katowice and which presents Crucified Christ borne on the wings of a Seraph, was realized by the Cracow Stained Glass Studio S. G. Żeleński (Romańczyk participated in the work), thirty years after the creation of the design project; the above stained-glass work is an outstanding example of the Polish Art Nouveau style.

Keywords: Stanisław Wyspiański, Fryderyk Romańczyk, Upper Silesia, Dąbrowa Basin, polish art, church art, stained glass, 20th century

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On the 23 March 1929, Izabela Żeleńska, the proprietress of the stained glass studio S.G. Żeleński in Kraków, wrote in a letter addressed to her son Adam: “We are working on Wyspiański’s project, but it is this Christ for the church in Biecz, – today, Romańczyk has spent the whole day in the Museum”.[1] Who was this mysterious Romańczyk mentioned in the letter? Was he only a craftsman working on the stained glass window designed by Wyspiański? And finally which stained glass window authored by Wyspiański are we referring to here if there have never been any windows executed according to the design project of this Kraków based artist in the church in Biecz? The present article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to the above queries.

In the year 1935, a stained glass window[2] representing the Crucified Christ borne on the wings of a Seraph [fig. 1] was installed in the chapel of the Metropolitan Curia under the invocation of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus in Katowice. The naked body of Jesus is surrounded here by the tapering wings of a Seraph: two at the top, a couple more around Jesus’ arms and another two around His hips, creating a long perizonium reaching down to his knees. The taut body of God’s Son creates a complex of vertical and horizontal lines, “suspended” in space in the form of a cross. The silhouette of Jesus is surrounded by a rose bush with thick, decoratively twisted branches and stems, ending in buds or rose flowers. The grey-blue body of Christ with a slightly greenish hue, and the crimson-orange wings together with the golden halo create an intense and warm color pattern. The flower bush and the “scale” like background surrounding Jesus form a cold color scheme which is saturated with violet and silver-grey hues, enlivened with elements of dirty pink. The above composition, which was executed by the Kraków Stained Glass Workshop of S. G. Żeleński, had been purchased at the General National Art Exhibition in Poznań by the Bishop of Katowice Arkadiusz Lisiecki in the year 1929. During this exhibition the above stained glass window adorned the pavilion of the Żeleński workshop.[3] The stained glass window had been executed in accordance with the large-scale, pastel colored project from the year 1897 which has been preserved in the National Museum in Kraków.[4] In the year 1910, the above drawing was purchased by the Museum from the artist’s legacy.[5]

Researchers specializing in Wyspiański’s art are divided in their opinions as to whether the project had been originally created for the Franciscan Church in Kraków[6] or alternatively for the parish church in Biecz.[7] In the interwar period, the predominant view (popularized by Feliks Kopera[8]) was that the design project had been prepared for the parish church in Biecz. Currently the above hypothesis is upheld by Tadeusz Ślawski who follows Wyspiański’s traces in Biecz and in the entire Subcarpathian area. In the years 1895–1897,[9] Wyspiański worked on the decoration of the late-Gothic Corpus Christi parish church in Biecz. He had been commissioned to do so by architect Sławomir Odrzywolski who was supervising restoration work in this temple since around the year 1886.[10] Wyspiański was to have prepared drafts of the painter’s decoration and was also responsible for its execution. Yet from the artist’s letters, one learns that he had created exclusively sketches of plant decorations which he continued to alter and supplement.[11] Relying on the data contained in the exhibition catalog of the National Museum in Kraków in 1932 as well as on the opinion of Feliks Kopera and Wincenty Trojanowski, Tadeusz Ślawski concludes that the preserved pastel is a design project for the church in Biecz. The above hypothesis could be confirmed by the fragment of the letter which was cited at the beginning of the present article, yet one cannot rule out the fact that Iza Żeleńska’s words (written over 30 years after the completion of the design project) constituted merely a reflection of the view, popularized by Feliks Kopera, that was common at the turn of the 20s and 30s of the 20th century. The majority of contemporary scholars are of the opinion that Wyspiański’s pastel project constitutes an alternative version of the upper section of the Kraków stained glass window. Quite recently Wojciech Bałus has unequivocally proved the justifiability of this hypothesis, pointing to the similarities between the contour-line of the rose bush branch from the pastel project which served as the basis of the Katowice stained glass window and the realized Kraków version.[12] Thus the representation in the chapel of the Metropolitan Curia in Katowice would be a fragment of the scene known from the Kraków Franciscan Church – revealing the upper part of Stigmatization with the Seraphic Christ, yet without the figure of St Francis. Moreover, the Kraków scholar presented a convincing interpretation of the iconography of the stained glass window which is also extremely important for the interpretation of the Katowice window. Bałus proved that the scene from the Kraków Franciscan Church is linked to two events from the hagiography of St Francis, namely: stigmatization[13] and a relatively little known incident known as the “miracle of the roses”. The “miracle of the roses” had been vividly and colorfully presented by Julian Klaczko in his lecture entitled St Francis of Assisi and the Italian Gothicism, which was delivered by him in the Academy of Sciences in Kraków in 1893: “On a certain bleak and stormy night, St Francis threw himself onto a thorn bush, a short distance away from the tiny church of Portiuncula. By doing so, the saint wanted to tame and mortify his senses. At that moment a great brightness enveloped this strange bed of his, and the thorn bush became suddenly covered with a multitude of the most beautiful rose flowers. The saint picked twelve of the roses: six white and six red ones”.[14] The “miracle of the roses” was known to Wyspiański.[15]

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The art of Stanisław Wyspiański served as an inspiration to Fryderyk Romańczyk, who was mentioned in the above-quoted letter of Izabela Żeleńska, an artist-craftsman who had been directly involved in the execution of the Biecz (or else Katowice) design project. Fryderyk Romańczyk,[16] who operated intensively in the Upper Silesian and the Dąbrowskie Coal Basin, was born on the 12 January 1892 and died on the 10 February 1949. In the years 1905–1910 he studied and practiced in the section of artistic painting on glass in the workshop belonging to S. G. Żeleński, and subsequently, in the years 1910–1913, in the Adolf Seiler Institute of Stained Glass in Wrocław (as a figure painter). In the years 1920–1929 he worked as a painter, stained glass artist and carton worker, once again in the stained glass studio of S. G. Żeleński, and subsequently for a brief period from August 1929 until December 1930 in the studio of Jan Kusiak (therefore the work on the stained glass window executed according to Wyspiański’s design project mentioned at the beginning, were surely one of the last tasks entrusted to him by Iza Żeleńska). In the years 1931–1933 Romańczyk cooperated with Roman Ryniewicz from Kraków as well as with Gottfried Heinzel, the owner of a glazing firm in Siemianowice Śląskie. Wishing to gain greater independence, he went into partnership with Heinzel and set up a company called: “The Silesian Stained Glass Company. Romańczyk. Heinzel”. In the year 1937, after the death of his wife, Romańczyk moved to Siemianowice Śląskie together with his whole family. The firm received numerous orders from the territory of the Polish part of Upper Silesia as well as from the area of the Coal Basin and it operated until nearly the end of World War II. In the subsequent period, the company became divided into two separate crafts workshops: a glazier’s and a stained glass workshop; the latter of the two being taken over by Fryderyk Romańczyk who remained in charge of it until his death. Subsequently the company was managed by his second wife Katarzyna (until the year 1974), then by his son Jan and at the present moment it is managed by his granddaughter – Barbara Romańczyk.

In the works of Fryderyk Romańczyk one can perceive clear influences of Wyspiański’s unbridled imagination. In the decoration of the stained glass windows of the Franciscan Church in Kraków, the artist made use of floral motifs, treating them as an element of equal importance as the figural composition. The saints on the Franciscan stained glass windows are surrounded with exuberant forms of plant life. The figures of Salome and Francis are merely a fragment of predominating and monumental nature. This tendency is particularly visible in the case of the stained glass window presenting the Blessed Salome, where the synthetic silhouette of the blessed, presented with very simple means, is surrounded with numerous flowers of yellow mulleins and snow-white lilies. Dividing this composition into its elementary parts, one is bound to come to the conclusion that the silhouette of the saint takes up merely a twelfth part of the entire surface area of the composition. It is quite significant that before Wyspiański, floral motifs were universally used in stained glass composition, merely as a “decorative” element, meant to enrich the figural representation.

This way of designing stained glass windows was adopted by Fryderyk Romańczyk, in whose works floral motifs are used as one of the fundamental elements of composition. In most cases, the plant decoration, in the form of a wide frieze, took up the lower fragments of his stained glass windows or else it merged organically with the main figural representation. In most cases, Romańczyk composed the plant motifs relying on carefully selected species, which he portrayed with naturalistic precision, presenting them in all of their glory, including stems, leaves, buds and flower petals. Among the artist’s favorite motives, one finds crimson-colored roses and white lilies; he also painted irises, poppies, pansies, mallows, campanulas and chestnut leaves. The flowers, which are so characteristic of Romańczyk’s art, are to be found in nearly all the independent works of this stained glass artist, both those created before and after the war.

The most interesting and probably closest to Wyspiański’s art is the set of stained glass windows designed by Romańczyk for the neo-Gothic Church of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus in Dąbrowa Górnicza-Strzemieszyce, erected in the years 1903–1910 according to the design project of architect Józef Pomian Pomianowski. Work on this cycle began in the year 1937 and continued throughout the German occupation.[17] On the stained glass windows placed in the upper sections of the presbytery and transept, one finds representations of the following saints: Stanislaw Kostka, Theresa of Child Jesus, Juniper, Bishop Stanislaw, Peter the Apostle, Francis of Assisi, Joseph and Anthony of Padua. Shown frontally and at half-length, the figures almost “vanish” amongst the profusion of multi-colored flower decorations, constituting the framework of their images. St Stanislaw Kostka, the patron of youth is surrounded with multi-colored irises; the image of St Theresa of Child Jesus, a Carmelite mystic and patron saint of missions and missionaries as well as of working youth – is framed with huge pansies; St Juniper summoned in cases of war, drought, fever or plague – is surrounded with slender mallows; Bishop and Martyr Stanislaw – Poland’s chief patron saint – with red primroses; the silhouette of St Peter [fig. 2], the successor of Christ is surrounded with orange and yellow nasturtiums; St Anthony [fig. 3], the mediaeval Franciscan preacher and patron of the poor is framed with the Damascus rose bush; St Joseph of Baby Jesus, the protector of God’s Mother and patron saint of joiners, workers, spouses, Catholic families and good death – is surrounded with white lilies and crimson-colored roses; whereas the poor man of Assisi, and patron saint of the mendicant Franciscan order, of the poor and of animals – is surrounded with a stylized floral thread in the shape of a candelabra, on top of which one finds a number of multi-colored birds. On the main stained glass window of the presbytery, one finds a full-length image of Christ representing the iconographic type of the Sacred Heart, which is surrounded with the motif of a blooming chestnut tree.

Images of saints, placed amongst a thicket of flowers and leaves are also to be seen on the stained glass windows designed by Romańczyk for the vicarage of the Holy Trinity Parish Church in Szarlej [fig. 4], presently a borough of Piekary Śląskie. On the staircase of the vicarage, built in 1933, one finds a big, three-tier glazed surface with figural images. Along the axis of each of the tiers a medallion with the image of: the Sacred Heart of Lord Jesus, St Joseph with Baby Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Virgin Mary, had been placed. The remaining surface area of the glazing is tightly covered with a floral thread which in the lower sections assumes the form of a rose bush with crimson-colored flowers, whereas in the upper levels, it gives way to the stems of a lily with big, white flowers.[18]

A small Baroque church of St Catherine in Będzin-Grodziec, built in the years 1726–1729, was extended in the years 1931–1932, when a simple, three-nave hall, built in accordance with the design project of architect Henryk Oderfeld was added. Apart from side altars, a pulpit and the Stations of the Cross, around the year 1936 the rebuilt temple also received new stained glass windows.[19] Particularly impressive are the two elongated walls of the nave corpus which have been pierced with huge windows in the shape of a horizontally positioned rectangle. Each of the windows is filled with a stained glass composition consisting of sixteen sections. The compositions reveal a genuine thicket of vegetation, made up of rose bush thorns and stems of white lilies with flowers, entwined in places with red bunches of rose flowers. Among this profusion of floral motifs, the religious themes of the stained glass composition – the representations of the four evangelists, portrayed symbolically as apocalyptic, winged creatures: the lion of St Mark and the eagle of St John (on the southern side, fig. 5) as well as the ox of St Luke and the angel of St Matthew (on the northern side, fig. 6), all but disappear. Moreover on each of the stained glass windows, one finds the image of a lamb entangled in thorns towards which a snake is slowly creeping. On the stained glass of the southern side [fig. 5], symbolic motifs have been placed: the letters A and Ω, a pelican feeding its young and a Marian and Christological monogram; on the northern side [fig. 6], one can see a bird holding some food in its beak, as well as a Marian and Christological monogram. Floral elements fulfilling a purely decorative function occur also on the remaining stained glass windows of the complex – in the eight windows of the presbytery, where the main themes are symbolic motifs (a cross with a bunch of grapes, an anchor entwined with a fish, a phoenix, a chalice with ears of corn and bunches of grapes, a tree of good and bad knowledge entwined by a serpent, a boat with the monogram Chi Rho), encircled with three purple roses and a stem of white lilies with flowers, as well as in the oculus of the southern chapel (added to the corpus of the nave in the course of expansion work in the 30s of the 20th century, and fulfilling the function of a baptismal chapel), containing the scene known as the Baptism of Christ. The figures of Jesus and John the Baptist standing in the waters of the river Jordan are encircled with slender-looking, violet and yellow irises.

Fryderyk Romańczyk’s favorite motifs – the red and white lilies – can be seen in the two circular stained glass windows with the representations of St Stanislaw Kostka and the Blessed Bronislawa, which had been executed by the artist for the parish church of St John and Paul in Katowice-Dębie. This neo-Gothic temple was built according to the design project of Ludwik Schneider in the years 1901–1902. In its presbytery one finds two original stained glass works representing the Most Sacred Heart of Lord Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Virgin Mary; both had no doubt been executed in the Racibórz stained glass workshop belonging to Emanuel Lazar. During the renovation, carried out in the year 1938, the old stained glass works were restored and new ones were installed.[20] All stained glass works were completed by the Heizel-Romańczyk workshop from Siemianowice Śląskie.[21] It was also at that time that two new stained glass works modeled on the existing windows, presenting the images of St Jacek (Hyacinth) and St Isidore were realized in the church’s presbytery. The multi-section figural stained glass windows in the transept with representations of eight saints were designed by Władysław Drapniewski from Poznań, whereas the remaining stained glass works were completed by Romańczyk (works with symbolic motifs and the two oculi mentioned above).[22]

The same formal solution, consisting in encircling the half-length figure of the saint with a floral decoration was also employed by Romańczyk in the case of the stained glass works executed for a small village church of St James in Sączow near Będzin.[23] In the two oculi with the representations of the Most Sacred Heart of Lord Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Virgin Mary, the frontally presented figures of Mary and Jesus were surrounded with lily and rose flowers as well as with numerous leaves and plant stems. In the case of the elongated full-length representation of Stanislaw Kostka, one comes across two stems with the flowers of white lilies, symbolizing the saint’s chastity.

The two works in the presbytery, from the set of stained glass executed prior to the outbreak of the Second World War[24] for the parish church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary in Życice[25] near Będzin, constitute a reflection of Romańczyk’s “floral” fascination. Each of the two-person scenes presenting the Annunciation and Crowning of Virgin Mary, were adorned in its lower section with the flowers of white lilies. In the adjacent village of Wojkowice, the artist also adorned the image of the patron saint of the neo-Baroque parish church of St Anthony of Padua[26] with white lilies. In the case of the stained glass works of the church’s presbytery, the artist went a step further. The two windows next to the main altar contain representations of the Eye of Providence,[27] symbolizing God the Father and the Dove of the Holy Spirit [fig. 7]. On the above stained glass representations, the symbolic images of the two divine persons seem to be almost obliterated by a profusion of floral decorations. Nearly the entire surface area of the stained glass works is taken up by multicolored flowers with fully-grown petals and vaguely geometricized forms.

In his figural stained glass works, Romańczyk also used such compositional solutions, in which the floral decoration was clearly separated from the figural image. The latter pattern can be observed for instance in the case of the stained glass works from the parish church of the Birth of Virgin Mary in Żyglin near Tarnowskie Góry.[28] Here the floral motifs appear in the lower sections of the works in the form of friezes with the flowers of white lilies, blue campanulas or ears of corn. Above them, one finds the representations of St Anne with Mary, St Hedwig of Silesia and St Hyacinth, whereas white lilies and red roses can be seen in the symbolic stained glass work representing the Immaculate Heart of Virgin Mary.[29]

A big complex of stained glass works designed and executed by Fryderyk Romańczyk is to be found in the neo-Gothic parish church of St Stanislaw in Myszków, which was built in the years 1907–1925.[30] The stained glass works which originated in the 1904s had been designed on the principle of small, one or two-person figural scenes, presenting various saints. In the lower, clearly separated sections of the stained glass works, one finds images of flowers from Polish gardens. In the six-section windows of the transept, one finds two representations of mystical visions: one presenting a Jesuit Stanislaw Kostka, to whom Virgin Mary reveals herself [fig. 8], and the other of St Margaret, a Nun of the Visitation, to whom Christ himself is revealed. At the bottom of the two representations, one finds blue and violet irises and red mallows. The remaining bipartite windows reveal: St John Kanty, a lecturer of the University of Kraków and patron saint of professors and students (at the bottom, there are yellow daffodils); blessed Vincent Kadlubek, bishop of Kraków and subsequently friar in the Cistercian abbey in Jędrzejów, author of the half legendary and fairy-tale like Kronika polska [Polish Chronicle] (at the bottom, there are nasturtiums); St Casimir, king and patron saint of Poland and Lithuania as well as patron of youth (at the bottom, images of white lilies); St Andrew Bobola, Jesuit preacher, defender of the unity of the Eastern and Western Church (at the bottom, red roses); St Jacek (Hyacinth) Odrowąż, 12th-century Dominican friar, known as the “apostle of the north”, patron saint of Poland (at the bottom blue campanulas); Blessed Bronislawa, a Premonstratensian nun, related to Saint Jacek and the Blessed Czesław; according to the legend, she was associated with the flight of the nuns before the Mongol invasion of 1241 (at the bottom: pansies).

The two stained glass windows in the parish church of St John the Baptist in the Niwice quarter of Sosnowiec, date back to the postwar period. The church in Niwice was erected in the years 1896–1907 in the neo-Gothic style. The two stained glass windows executed in the year 1948[31] present: St Adalbert and St Stanislaw Kostka (on the left side, fig. 9), Bishop Stanislaw and King Casimir (on the right). Shown at full-length and almost frontally, the Polish saints “emerge” from among ornate floral decoration: the first one from a multitude of narcissuses, the patron of youth from mallows, Stanislaw from garden campanulas, and Kazimierz (Casimir) the Jagiellon from lilies.

Shortly after the war, in the course of just two years (1945–1947), Romańczyk adorned the interior of the parish church of St Anthony in Siemianowice Śląskie with as many as thirty stained glass works. The church, which was converted from a former market hall, was erected in the years 1927–1931.[32] The circular representations of saints shown in the bust form, were inscribed in rectangular stained glass fields which the artist encircled with a floral motif. The same motif was subsequently repeated below the busts of the saints, as a consequence of which, the flowers became not only a decorative element, but also one which organizes the entire surface of the stained glass composition. This impressive complex is also interesting due to the stained glass work in the church’s presbytery, which presents God the Father [fig. 10]. The work was awarded a silver medal at the National Crafts Exhibition which was held in Katowice in 1947.[33] The above stained glass work illustrates in a most emphatic way the inspiration of Wyspiański in Romańczyk’s art. The similarity to Wyspiański’s representation of God the Father from the Kraków Franciscan Church is particularly visible in the way the artist portrays God as a bearded, grey-haired and “visionary” old man.

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[1] A copy of the letter belongs to Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska from Kraków, whom I would like to thank most sincerely for making it available to me as well as for her assistance.

[2] Rev. H. Pyka, Witraż Ukrzyżowany na skrzydłach serafina Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w kaplicy Kurii Metropolitarnej w Katowicach, in: Witraże na Śląsku, ed. T. Dudek-Bujarek, Katowice 2002, pp. 67–68.

[3] Ibidem.

[4] Pastel on paper, stuck onto canvass with dimensions 335 × 141cm in the clearance, 355 × 201 cm together with the frame, National Museum in Kraków, inv. no. MNK III-r.a. 13 432.

[5] The information is derived from the inventory card of the exhibit, prepared on the 4 November 1987 by Wiesława Kozłowska (entry: date and way purchase).

[6] S. Przybyszewski, T. Żuk-Skarszewski, S. Świerz, Stanisław Wyspiański. Dzieła malarskie, Kraków–Warszawa–Bydgoszcz 1925, p. 113, item 212; H. d’Abancourt de Franqueville’s article Witraże w sztuce religijnej [Stained Glass Windows in Religious Art] in the catalog to the Exhibition of Religious Art held in the vestibule of the Silesian Diet in Katowice in the year 1931, in: O polskiej sztuce religijnej, ed. J. Langman, Katowice 1932, p. 116; Stanisław Wyspiański 1869–1907. Wystawa jubileuszowa, exhibition catalogue, National Museum in Kraków, Kraków 1957–1958, item 74, p. 73; StanisławWyspiański. Opus Magnum, exhibition catalogue, National Museum in Kraków 2000, p. 127; W. Bałus, Wyspiański i tradycja. Na przykładzie witrażu ze św. Franciszkiem, in: “Teksty Drugie”, 2004, no. 4, p. 105; W. Bałus, Sztuka sakralna Krakówa w wieku XIX. Część II. Matejko i Wyspiański, Kraków 2007, pp. 125–135; I. Kontny, “Wszelakich budowli ozdoba”. Secesyjny witraż w województwie śląskim na wybranych przykładach, in: Witraż esecesyjne. Tendencje i motywy, ed. T. Szybisty, Kraków–Legnica 2011, pp. 160–162 and in accordance with the information contained on the inventory card of the exhibit (cf. ft. 5).

[7] F. Kopera, Dzieje malarstwa w Polsce. Malarstwo w Polsce w XIX i XX wieku, vol. 3, Warszawa 1929, p. 513; Stanisław Wyspiański, exhibition catalogue, National Museum in Kraków, November–December 1932, Kraków 1932, no. 75; signature under the illustration on page 2 and article Mozaika i witraż (p. 7) in: “Gość Niedzielny”, 1932, no. 23; T. Ślawski, Stanisława Wyspiańskiego kontakty z Bieczem, exhibition catalogue, District Museum in Rzeszów, Museum in Biecz, Rzeszów 1969; idem, Stanisław Wyspiański na Podkarpaciu. W 130 rocznicę urodzin artysty, Biecz 1999, pp. 93–94. Rev. H. Pyka, the monographer of the stained glass window, did not share any of the presented opinions, cf. Pyka 2002 (ft. 1), pp. 67–73.

[8] Kopera 1929 (ft. 7), p. 513.

[9] Ślawski 1999 (ft. 7), pp. 73–74.

[10] Ibidem.

[11] Ibidem, p. 81.

[12] Bałus 2004 (ft. 6), p. 105; Bałus 2007 (ft. 6), pp. 125–135.

[13] The stigmatization of St Francis is a phenomenon which is known from all historical accounts of the saint’s life. The iconography of the scene reveals St Francis “receiving” from Christ His five wounds. In the Kraków Franciscan Church, the stained glass presents a “poor man from Assisi” with upwardly raised hands and an up-turned head. The man is looking up at the figure of Christ which is sheltered by six wings of a Seraph.

[14] Citation after: Bałus 2007 (ft. 6), p. 131.

[15] Cf. ibidem.

[16] Stained glass artist Fryderyk Romańczyk is little known in the literary sources devoted to this issue. He was “discovered” by Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska who wrote about the activity of the Romańczyk brothers in the publication Witraże w Krakówie. Dzieła i twórcy, Kraków 2005, pp. 63–65. The biographical data quoted in the present article comes from the unpublished paper by Magdalena Musiał, Fryderyk Romańczyk’s granddaughter, entitled Zakład Witraży i Oszkleń Artystycznych FRYDERYK ROMAŃCZYK. Siemianowice Śląskie, Siemianowice Śląskie 2004 (MS in the hands of the authoress), as well as from the afore-mentioned publication by D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska. I also owe some of the information to the artist’s other granddaughter, Ms Barbara Romańczyk.

[17] On the stained glass windows, one can see the dates: 1937, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. The authorship of the stained glass windows is undisputed, cf. Musiał 2004, (ft. 16), pp. 97–100. In the artist’s legacy one can find design projects of stained glass windows showing St Peter, St Francis and St Juniper (carton without the figure).

[18] I. Kontna, Witraż na plebanii. Witraże w budynkach probostw uprzemysłowionej części Górnego Śląska i Zagłębia, in: „Witraż”, 2002, nos 2–3, pp. 31–32.

[19] The design projects of the stained glass windows, dated 1936, were presented at an exhibition Fryderyk Romańczyk – the Siemianowice Stained Glass Artist, which was opened in Siemianowice Śląskie on 18 Jan. 2006; cf. also Musiał 2004 (ft. 16), pp. 42–44.

[20] Kronika parafialna [Parish Chronicle], vol. I: Historia Parafii i miejscowości Dąb, written down by A. Pająk, information referring to the year 1938. The Chronicle is kept in the Dębie vicarage.

[21] Ibidem.

[22] The design projects were completed in 1937, cf. Musiał 2004 (ft. 16), p. 57; Kronika parafialna… (ft. 20), (relating to the year 1938).

[23] This eclectic church was erected in the years 1872–1875 according to the design project of architect Liche. In all likelihood, shortly after the war it was decorated with a set of stained glass works designed by Romańczyk. The artist’s granddaughter, Barabara Romańczyk is in possession of the cartons for the stained glass windows with the images of St Cecilia, St Isidore and St Stanislaw Kostka.

[24] On the stained glass work St Agnes (in the nave), one sees the date 1938.

[25] The church was erected in the years 1935–1938.

[26] The church was erected in the years 1929–1936 in accordance with the design project of Wiesław Konowicz and Stefan Szyller.

[27] The stained glass work is signed: Fryd. Romańczyk 1938.

[28] The church was erected in 1842.

[29] The stained glass bears the signature: Executed by/ (?) ROMAŃCZYK SIEMIANOWICE.

[30] The design projects of these stained glass works were presented at an exhibition Fryderyk Romańczyk – Siemianowice Stained Glass Artist, which was already mentioned above.

[31] On the left side of the stained glass window one can see the date: 1948.

[32] Musiał 2004 (ft. 16), p. 103.

[33] Ibidem.

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