Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Centrum Dokumentacji Współczesnej Sztuki Sakralnej
pl. Ofiar Getta 4-5/35, 35-002 Rzeszów
tel. +48 17 872 20 98

Anna Siemieniec

Warsaw University

Abstract:

Adam Stalony-Dobrzański (1904–1985), a graduate and lecturer of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow was one of the leading creators of contemporary Orthodox art in Poland. Creating comprehensive concepts of interior designs of Polish churches, the artist introduced, inter alia, stained-glass windows into their space. Many of these windows were designed for churches and buildings belonging to the Orthodox Church in Warsaw. They are described in this article, with special attention being paid to their history and iconography. The oldest stained glass window is Deesis, created in 1956 for the lower chapel of the Orthodox Church of St John Climacus in Wola. It was only in the late 1970s and beginning of the 1980s that glazing for the upper chapel according to Stalony-Dobrzański’s designs was manufactured. In 1968 Stalony-Dobrzański was invited to participate in a competition for the renovation project of the Metropolitan Council of the Holy Equal to Apostles of Mary Magdalene in Warsaw. However, his project, elaborated in co-operation with Jerzy Nowosielski, Boris Oleszko and Sotyris Pantopulos, was not realised. Currently, in the church there is only one stained glass window designed by Stalony-Dobrzański, i.e. Mary Magdalene meets the Resurrected Christ (1976). In the 1970s Stalony-Dobrzański designed stained-glass windows for the House of the Metropolitan of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church (the collection is currently scattered), and in the next decade – also for the Museum Of Warsaw Orthodox Metropolis (projects were not realised).

Keywords: Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, Warsaw, Poland, sacred art, stained glass, Orthodox church, Orthodoxy

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One of the leading creators of modern Orthodox art in Poland is Adam Stalony-Dobrzański (1904–1985),[1] a graduate and lecturer of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, painter, graphic artist, restorer of works of art, and above all a wonderful stained glass creator. Creating comprehensive concepts of interior designs for Polish Orthodox temples, the artist introduced, inter alia, stained-glass windows into their space. Window glazing had been encountered before in Orthodox architecture, but it is in the art of Stalony-Dobrzański that stained glass for the first time referred directly to the tradition of icon painting.

Creating works for the Orthodox Church in Poland, the artist co-operated, inter alia, with Fr. Włodzimierz Doroszkiewicz,[2] later Bishop of the Wrocław-Szczecin diocese, then Metropolitan of Warsaw and Poland, and Fr. Jerzy Klinger.[3] In 1951, Stalony-Dobrzański was invited by Fr. Doroszkiewicz, then the parish priest of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary parish in Gródek, to design the interiors of the newly built church. The artist, along with a team of painters, among whom Nowosielski proved a real individualist, painted a polychrome (1952–1955), and then designed the stained-glass windows (1953–1955). This experience resulted in many years of co-operation between Stalony-Dobrzański and Fr. Doroszkiewicz. The co-operation after Gródek was continued in Wrocław[4] and Warsaw.

The first stained-glass windows for the Warsaw Orthodox Church by Stalony-Dobrzański were ordered by Fr. Jerzy Klinger, who, in 1955, was transferred from Kętrzyn to the capital, where he took over the cemetery parish in the Wola district. As Fr. prof. Konrad Rudnicki, the astronomer and priest from Cracow, mentions, the apartment of Father Klinger “by the Orthodox church of St John Climacus in Wola was a meeting place for a few people who were fascinated by his extraordinary, ecumenical approach to theology. This group encompassed people coming from different places: Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, an Orthodox stained glass creator and painter; Serafin Michalewski, a former officer in Kosciuszko’s Army who received an Orthodox deacon ordination; Jerzy Nowosielski, who often commuted from Łódź, and myself – an astronomer from the University of Warsaw preparing quietly as a deacon to the priesthood in the Mariavite Church […]. Sometimes our meetings were attended by Jerzy’s wife – Zofia, and sometimes by the painter Krystyna Zwolińska – a conscious agnostic, but with a Christian attitude. There is no way to omit Jan Anchimiuk, currently Metropolitan of Wrocław, called Jeremiasz.[5]     These meetings resulted in, inter alia, agreement between Father Klinger and the Cracow artists on Orthodox Church design and generally on the new sacred art combining respect for Church tradition and the contemporary artistic attitude.

 

 Orthodox Church of St John Climacus

The Orthodox church of St John Climacus in the Wola district was built between 1903 and 1905 in the Byzantine-Ruthenian style, on the plan of the Greek cross. It has an over-ground part, with an extended eastern arm forming a straight closed sanctuary, and an under-ground part, built on an elongated rectangle plan, where the lower Chapel of St Jerome of Stridon and Prophet Elijah was created. During the Warsaw Uprising many parishioners were murdered, and the Church was largely destroyed.[6] After the war the temple needed a thorough overhaul. When in 1955 Fr. Klinger became the parish priest, he continued the renovation which started after the war: “the first thing he did was check where the iconography of the Orthodox Church could be developed”, recalls Michał Klinger.[7] “Fr. Klinger decided to adorn the lower church. It was the burial chapel and it has played this role until today. He invited Nowosielski and Stalony-Dobrzański. They elaborated a project, which immediately assumed the stained-glass Deesis in the chancel window. In my opinion, which is shared by other people – it is one of the best stained-glass windows of Stalony-Dobrzański. The choice of colours was to correspond with Nowosielski’s polychrome, which indicates that from the very beginning they worked together”.[8]

The Deesis composition, mentioned by Michał Klinger, located in the only window of the lower chapel apse in Wola [fig. 1] is the first stained-glass window by Stalony-Dobrzański in Warsaw. The artist himself wrote about it in his memoirs: “The stained-glass window is small – 0.8 square metre. I made it in 1956 on the request of the late Fr Jerzy Klinger, then the parish priest of this church. The frame was made by the parish priest and the builder of the beautiful church of the Holy Mother in Gródek Białostocki.[9] /I accidentally preserved the telegram: – 9.5. Gródek. Urgent – I will be in Warsaw with the frame 11 May-Włodzimierz. − I responded by sending the telegram: – I will bring the stained-glass window – Warsaw Saturday morning – Adam/. This morning we installed the stained-glass window with Fr. Klinger”.[10]

            The stained glass takes the form of a rectangle with rounded corners. Stalony-Dobrzański left an iconographic description of this window which he drew up himself: “Christ PANTOCRATOR on the rainbow, and here in the Orthodox Church presented in the stained-glass window in the mandorla of Great Glory, hears and blesses with words written for us in an open Gospel + I am the resurrection and the life +/John. 11,25/.[11] This is an old Orthodox icon DISUS-Deesis. – “There is no Orthodox Church without it” wrote the great scholar Aleksander Brückner in his Dzieje Języka Polskiego (History of the Polish Language). This icon is the content of
‘Bogurodzica’, the oldest Polish hymn about the intercession of Mother of God[12] and Saint John
‘the Baptizer’ of the begging.[13] At the lower edge of the stained-glass window, on the right side of the footrest, where the John the Baptist stands, there are inscriptions showing the year and place the work was created: “1956” and “KRAKÓW ZAKŁAD RR” (“CRACOW RR WORKSHOP”),[14] while on the right foot of the Mother of God there is the mark of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański.[15] According to Michał Klinger “in some sense this stained glass is unique, because it has the intense colors, it corresponds with the polychrome by Nowosielski, who was looking for a strong chromatic range: strong reds or blues. There is also little light, and therefore the color had to be particularly strong”.

Stalony-Dobrzański’s first stained-glass window in Warsaw was spotted in 1958 by Irena Huml,[16] who in her article[17] about Stalony-Dobrzański analysed the essential characteristics of the artist’s works indicating his conscious references to the tradition of the sacred art of the Christian West and East, both in iconography, as well as in the glazing.[18] Huml recognised the stained-glass window from the church in Wola as a modern and mature work of art. She paid attention to the original colour concept based on contrasting deep sapphire with a warm range of reds and yellows, highlighted with green accents. She noticed the most distinctive link with modernity in the graphical arrangement of the pieces of the coloured glass: “The creator has also mastered the technical aspects of the stained-glass creation, which may be noticed in logically and esthetically arranged cames. These cames reflect in the best way the characteristics of the present day.
Irregular fields that build up the stained glass resemble the Cubist approach. Despite this fact, the artist never lost the art of good communication which is crucial in the sacred works”.[19] Stalony-Dobrzański donated the project of the stained-glass window to Fr. Klinger and his wife – Halina. The project had been shown at exhibitions of cardboard paintings for stained-glass windows created by the artist, such as the first exhibition in the Palace of Arts in Cracow in 1957, as Fr. Klinger mentions in a short review published in “Cerkiewny Wiestnik”.[20]

[member]

In the 1980s attempts were made to break into the lower church. It was then that the right upper pane of Deesis showing the face of John the Baptist was damaged. Fr. Klinger handed over the design of the stained glass to the Cracow workshop of Krzysztof and Andrzej Cwilewicz, who made the necessary repairs.[21] The design has not returned to the owner and no one knows where it is now.[22]

The upper church was reconstructed in stages. A complete renovation of the central dome, and the façade was carried out only in 1964, and after two years the choir was restored. The work on the design of the upper church started in 1973, when Fr. Anatol Szydłowski became the parish priest of the church in Wola.[23] Stalony-Dobrzański mentions this period in the following way: “1976.[24] When Fr. Anatol Szydłowski, the Dean of Warsaw, became the parish priest in Wola he eliminated disorder and negligence caused in the previous years and started renovation and furnishing of the church. Jerzy Nowosielski had already painted the polychromy in the lower church. I have created and got approved the polychromy of the whole upper church with the design of all 14 stained-glass windows in the Historic Monuments Restorer Office. Stained-glass windows in the dome are already installed. The cardboard paintings for all other windows are waiting for glazing. The polychromes of the dome and in the altar have also been created. We are preparing further stages of work. Cardboard paintings have been created for ceramic mosaics that will decorate the church entrances”.[25]

Stalony-Dobrzański prepared cardboard paintings for stained-glass windows that were intended to be set in all the windows of the upper church.[26] From 1977 to the beginning of the next decade[27] the Cracow workshop of Krzysztof Paczka and Andrzej Cwilewicz[28] manufactured the glass panes for thirteen paintings[29]: one in the transom over the entrance from the vestibule to the nave, two in the nave, two in the sanctuary and eight in the dome. Their colors and the method of imposing patina on the glass clearly differ from effects that Stalony-Dobrzański obtained in his early projects. According to Jan Pawlicki “Commissioners did not like that Stalony-Dobrzański’s stained-glass windows are so dark and have heavily saturated colours obtained through the application of intensive patina tones. They preferred lighter spaces, and therefore Stalony-Dobrzanski’s later windows are generally much brighter. Taking both the technology of creation and the colour scheme into account, one may notice that these stained-glass windows are completely different from those created in the 1950s, like Deesis in the lower chapel”.[30]

In the fanlight over the door leading from the vestibule to the nave, the stained glass depicting Our Lady of the Sign was installed. It is modelled on the icon of Our Lady of Jarosław and patrons of the upper and lower church – St John Climacus and the Prophet Elijah, and Angels[31] [fig. 2].

The stained-glass window in the northern bay of the nave depicts the following scenes: Lamentation of Christ, and the Resurrection of Lazarus.[32] Below the scenes, in the lower row of the glazing, one may notice holy women and women martyrs: St Anna the Prophetess, St Mary Magdalene, St Veronica, Eufrozina Suzdal and the unknow saint – martyr of World War II with a pair of unknown children,[33] and St Valentina[34] [fig. 3]. Including martyrs of World War II to the canon of saints was characteristic of Stalony-Dobrzański’s icons, while the topic of holy women in this context refers to the canonical policy of scene deployment in polychromy of the Orthodox temple, which relies on a descending hierarchy.[35] In accordance with this hierarchy, in the nave usually the holy people of God are presented – holy women on the north side, and holy men on the southern side. Stalony-Dobrzański in the iconography of his stained-glass windows abides by the principles of icon painting, showing the sacred in front, keeping the hieratic nature, the severity of the figures and prayer gestures, and the names inscribed around heads. Inscriptions do not only complete presentations but they also play the role of frameworks separating individual scenes.

The stained-glass window in the southern bay of the nave presents Old Testament prophets holding cards with inscriptions: King David and Moses,[36] Abraham and Daniel,[37] Micah and Isaiah,[38] Jeremiah and Habakkuk;[39] as well as Christian saints: St Sergius of Radonezh, St Serafima of Sarov, St Eustathius of Vilnius, St John the Russian, St Germana from Alaska and St Nicholas of Japan[40] [fig. 4]. The two windows in the eastern wall of the sanctuary house stained-glass windows depicting winged heavenly bodies[41] holding banners with the words “Holy, Holy, Holy”, written in different languages.[42] The stained glass in the northern window shows Exousiai and Kyriotetes [Authorities and Dominion];[43] the composition is crowned with the tondo including the initials of Our Lady “MP ΘY”. The stained glass in the southern window shows Archai and Dynamis [Principalities and Powers];[44] in the finial one may find the tondo with the letters “IC XC” and “NIKA” [fig. 5]. There are eight half-rounded, glazed windows in the dome of the Orthodox church. The windows are decorated with stained glass depicting seraphs wearing medallions. The background is abstract and the colours of glazing depend on juxtaposition of cold glass panes where purple, green and blue dominate with warm glass panes where red, orange and purple prevail.

Metropolitan Council of the Holy Equal to the Apostles of Mary Magdalene

The second Orthodox church in Warsaw where Stalony-Dobrzański worked is the Metropolitan Council of the Holy Equal to the Apostles of Mary Magdalene in Warsaw. It was built between 1867–1868 in the Byzantine-Ruthenian style in the shape of the Greek cross. It was designed by Nikolai A. Syczew as the parish Orthodox church in Praga. Its interior was decorated by Russian painters: Sergei Winogradow and Vasily Vasiliev,[45] who followed trends in Western European painting. Honey glass panes were installed in windows. Henryk Sienkiewicz claims that thanks to them “the interior gained an extremely malleable look”.[46] Since 1921 the temple has been used as the Cathedral Council.[47]

During the firing of Prague in September 1944, the main dome of the temple was damaged by German shells, and as a result of the fire, the entire roof was destroyed. In 1945, the reconstruction of the structural parts of the temple started. It was carried out in stages throughout the successive decades. Major reconstruction works were conducted between 1968 and 1969, when the Metropolitan Stefan (Rudyk) was the head of the Orthodox church. It was then that a competition was announced for the renovation project of the temple interiors. Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, Ryszard Józef Bielecki, prof. Stanisław Konarzewski, among many other artists, were invited to participate.[48] Adam Stalony-Dobrzański was asked on 15 April 1968 to create a project of polychrome. He replied to this offer immediately: “I put down everything and together with friends /3 painters and 2 architects/ I prepared two projects. One in accordance with the competition requirements, and the second one extended: – it proposed richly decorated polychromy, stained-glass windows, arrangement of the Council interiors, the necessary expansion of the area close to the altar, heating and lighting, and mosaics at the pediment”.[49] The artist, while working on the project, co-operated with the Orthodox colleagues from Cracow: Jerzy Nowosielski, Boris Oleszko and Sotyris Pantopulos.[50] The archive of Stalony-Dobrzański preserves numerous documents showing the problems encountered by the artist during the project assessment. In his correspondence with the Metropolitan Stefan (Rudyk), Metropolitan Jerzy (Korenistow), the Monuments Conservator of the Capital City of Warsaw and the Main Board of Polish Artists Union in Warsaw, Stalony-Dobrzański points out the lack of reliable evaluation of the submitted proposals. He indicates that members of the selection committee disregarded the guidelines according to which projects were to be produced, and then evaluated. In one of the documents he recollects: “The selection committee consisted of ‘official’ representatives. The best projects were not selected, but the envelopes were opened, projects were on display, competitors were invited to the meeting and I was invited with my team to co-operate with competitors. I saw the competitors for the first time, and from what I saw in their projects there were no prospects of co-operation. I was invited to a second competition on a different topic. And this time my project did not receive any objections”.[51]

Finally, the extended project of Stalony-Dobrzański, which also included stained-glass windows, was selected. On 20 November 1968, the Metropolitan commissioned the artists to produce a comprehensive project of polychromy. The artist completed work in time and submitted the design on 30 December 1968.[52] However, a few days earlier, the Warsaw Monuments Conservator had withdrawn the permission to realize the project. The archdiocese learned about this decision from a letter sent on 28 December,[53] in which it was recommended not to create a completely new polychrome, but to “reconstruct frescoes in accordance with their original appearance”.[54]

Stalony-Dobrzański in his correspondence to the Conservator indicated that the interior of the Council with damaged paints – “which do not have anything in common with the authentic tradition, cannot be renovated but needs to be arranged from scratch according to the contemporary artistic vision, based on the actual Orthodox traditions”.[55] The negative decision of the Conservator was not cancelled, and the temple was renovated by “sticking to the existing iconographic plan. In the course of work, it turned out that large batches of frescoes, particularly in the main dome, were completely destroyed. The paintings had to be reproduced on the basis of old photographs and descriptions » of eyewitnesses”.[56] The artist summed up this situation in his memories: “We need to understand that the aim of this ‘shambles’ was to prevent the Orthodox artists from renovating and furnishing the Cathedral of the Polish Orthodox Metropolitan in the Polish capital in order to fully reflect its Orthodox beauty”.[57]

The description of the expanded project of: extension, arrangement and furnishing of the interiors of the Council of St Mary Magdalene in Warsaw,[58] which was submitted to the jury in 1968, enables recreation of the artistic concept of Stalony-Dobrzański, which refers to unrealized polychromes and stained-glass windows. Other materials presented in the competition, along with the draft of the polychrome, have gone missing. In Description promoting the project, the artist explains the role of the stained-glass windows and their relation with the polychrome as follows: “Polychrome is an essential element of the color and decor. Windows, as a natural source of light in the interior are the integral factor of the whole. Colored glass panes provide better visual effects than frescoes. Therefore, the extended project links polychromes with stained-glass windows and makes the windows communicate the key contents. Stained-glass windows are not, as is commonly believed, the exclusive property and achievement of western art and tradition. God was praised from the very beginning also in the Orthodox temples in the East, in the Balkans, Russia and Poland. The wealth and solemnity of the interiors decorated with stained-glass windows cannot be undermined. This may be noticed by heading from Prague to St John’s Cathedral, located on the other side of the river. The installation of stained-glass windows in the church was also imposed for practical reasons – the current wooden framework stops at least 20% of light from getting into the church interiors […]. Stained glass should be done along with polychromes and installed from the same scaffoldings; at least in the dome. The primary aim of the project which extends the interior design is to enrich and expand the religious themes”.[59]

When recollecting works on the project that was eventually not realized, Stalony-Dobrzański described his unfulfilled vision and the role of stained-glass windows in developing modern Orthodox art in Poland as follows: “Stained-glass windows of more than 200 types. After I created stained-glass windows for the Orthodox church in Gródek and in Wola, and which was possible only thanks to the independence and courage of our Metropolitan Bazyli and Fr. rector Jan Klinger, I challenged the opinion according to which stained-glass windows are treated as a foreign element in Orthodox church interior design. Recent discoveries in Galicia and Kiven’ Rus proved that stained-glass windows in churches have only been forgotten”.[60]

The iconography of stained-glass windows in the meticulously elaborated project was very extended. The middle window of the dome covering the intersection of the naves was the spot where the stained glass depicting St Mary Magdalene, patron of the Council, was to be set. Plans were made to install seven stained-glass windows depicting seven archangels in “rich halos and with spheres, with their attributes and translations of their names” in the other seven windows of the dome.[61] In the stained-glass window of two apses Stalony-Dobrzański wanted to show heavenly bodies: Arche, Dynamis, Exousiai and Kyriotetes. In the eastern part of the nave, by the iconostasis, stained-glass windows presenting the Council of 70 Apostles were intended to be set, the windows of the northern wall of the nave were designed for glazings with scenes from the Mother of God, and the windows in the southern wall for stained glass depicting scenes where Mary Magdalene meets Jesus. Stalony-Dobrzański states that he wanted to use six windows of the nave to install stained-glass windows with one hundred and ten female characters; the windows of the façade were to present Cyril and Methodius.[62]

In addition to the listed scenes showing the patron of the temple, there were plans to place the stained-glass “Mary Magdalene before the Resurrected Christ”.[63] Only the stained-glass window in the fanlight was set. It presents the scene which is known in western iconography as Noli me tangere[64] [fig. 6]. In the bottom (heraldic) corner one may find inscription in Old Church Slavonic, which may be translated as: “The blessing of Bazyli, METROPOLITAN OF WARSAW and Poland 1971”,[65] while on the opposite side, under the foot of Mary Magdalene, there is the artist’s stamp and the year “1976”.[66]

The archive of Stalony-Dobrzański includes a cardboard painting for this glazing. It was created using ink and tempera and it bears the artist’s stamp and the year “1970”. On the painting there is also inscription in Old Church Slavonic: “The blessing of the Metropolitan Bazyli for the whole of Poland” and a quote from the Gospel of St John (John 20:17). The painting also includes two stamps of the Orthodox Metropolitan of Warsaw with an inscription “I accept and bless, Warsaw, 12. 07. 1970 + Metropolitan Bazyli” [fig. 7]. The exact date when the stained-glass window was created is not known, especially because there are two different years that may be seen on the glazing: “1971” and “1976”. In one of the documents Stalony-Dobrzański mentions the completed stained-glass Mary Magdalena in the morning of the Resurrection, giving the year 1975.[67] However, Zestawienie prac wykonanych dla kościołów katolickich oraz cerkwi w latach 19311977 indicates the year 1976.[68] “All of the Prague stained-glass windows – for the Council and for the seat of the Metropolitan – were manufactured in the stained glass workshop of Krzysztof Paczka and Andrzej Cwilewicz” – according to Jan Pawlicki.[69]

Stalony-Dobrzański also designed a double leaf mesh internal door for the cathedral, which was installed between the vestibule and the nave, and was manufactured in 1977.[70] The stained glass discussed above is embedded in the fanlight. The door leaves incorporate grating and multi-colored glazing composed of rectangular glass panes. The artist describes the project in the following way: “The sliding grating was placed in the door opening between the vestibule and the nave so that it could not only protect the interior but would also play a more important role, which was to facilitate constant contact with the church interior for passing members of the Orthodox church and followers of different religions. Someone will visit the church out of curiosity and will take an interest in it, someone will rest here for a while and feel the spirit of the church, and someone who lives far away from the church and misses it may pray fervently here” [fig. 8].

In 1982 the artist commissioned Michał Pieczonko[71] to paint according to the artist’s project and using “indelible paints […] the initials +MM+”[72] on transparent glazings of the external door leading to the council. Next to the initials there are also equal legs crosses and inscriptions. The archive of Michał Pieczonko retains 10 templates of crosses made by Stalony-Dobrzański on cardboard, painted in watercolours. Apart from the above-mentioned stained glass, the artist also created the mosaic on the outside wall of the sanctuary which presents St Mary Magdalene for the council.

Stalony-Dobrzański did not base the concept of his art on theoretical considerations as Jerzy Nowosielski did. However, in the description of the metropolitan council design[73] he wrote an interesting reflection on sacred art, its importance for the Orthodox church and every man who is in contact with this art.

If an unbeliever asks you about your faith, take him to the Orthodox church … as with bodily eyes spiritual life penetrates the mystery of the incarnation … + says St John of Damascus. Even the perfect (man) needs an image, as he needs to read in order to learn the Gospel…+ says St Theodore the Studite. + ANYONE WHO HAS SEEN ME, HAS SEEN THE FATHER + said the Lord /John.14.9/. John Chrysostom and other Fathers of the Orthodox church explain it in great detail.

Indirectly, this is covered in the works of contemporary scholars and researchers of culture and Orthodox art; even in the works of those who were distant from the Orthodox church, either because of their birth, or beliefs. This is particularly important for us who today want to design Orthodox temples.

The sacred nature of the object, its features and authentic traditions of worship, should lead the artwork and decoration. Thus, the architectural layout and furnishing must contribute to its usability. The objective of each Orthodox church is to praise God and teach about Orthodox religion, even more so in the Metropolitan Council of the Holy Equal to the Apostles of Mary Magdalene from the capital, where other religion prevails. For its believers all over Poland, those separated from the church, and non-believers, the Council needs to be the logical arrangement and suitability model, it must be a picture of an authentic beauty and an authentic Orthodox tradition expressed with contemporary language. We all know that clearly today, both ourselves and from strangers. Therefore, I propose this extended project.[74]

As an Orthodox artist, Stalony-Dobrzański was aware of a destructive influence of western European painting on icon painting. At the same time, however, he belonged to a group of Orthodox creators and thinkers in post-war Poland who understood that icon painting in the 20th century can touch a mystical secret of the Byzantine-Ruthenian icon thanks to the modern art experience. This can be done by using contemporary art language – forms of geometric abstraction, cubism. However, this “innovative” vision of the icon, deprived of realism elements, rich gold platings and decorative elements, was not legible for many Orthodox priests, parishioners or officials, who decided on the design of Orthodox churches renovated after the war. The project of the Metropolitan Council in Warsaw was not realized for these reasons. Currently the council windows have colorless glazings.

 

House of the Metropolitan of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church

The unique collection of stained-glass windows by Stalony-Dobrzański consists of glazings that are nowadays scattered all over Warsaw – and which were originally located in the house of the Metropolitan of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church. This building, located next to the Prague Council of St Mary Magdalene, was built in 1871 as a catechesis house and it has been playing its current role probably since 1921, when the Prague church became the cathedral council.[75] After taking the position of the Metropolitan of Warsaw and Poland Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz) commissioned Adam Stalony-Dobrzański and Aleksander Grygorowicz to arrange his seat and the Metropolitan’s Office.[76] In a letter to both artists from 14 February 1970, the Metropolitan defined the scope of work, which involved the “possible architectonic changes of the interior and the seat, and interior design and furnishing including the design and adaptation of rooms for the Metropolitan Museum”.[77] Stalony-Dobrzański designed stained-glass windows depicting Old Testament characters, holy men and women, the archangels and heavenly bodies, as well as Christian symbols. The artist created them himself between 1972 and 1977 (1978?)[78] in the Cracow workshop of Krzysztof Paczka and Andrzej Cwilewicz. The stained-glass windows were present until 1998, when the Metropolitan Sava (Hrycuniak) decided to remove most of them due to the excessive darkening the building[79] [fig. 9].

Only two stained-glass windows remained in their original location, that is in the corridor leading to the first floor and in the bay window on the first floor. Other panes, set in wooden frameworks as window sashes, were deposited after dismantling in the attic of the Metropolitan’s house, for future use in other buildings.[80] This objective was partly achieved as nineteen single panes were handed over to three Orthodox centres in Warsaw where they were on display: the Orthodox Seminary, the Museum of Icons and the Metropolitan Seminary. In the attic of the building, fifteen window sashes have been stored to the present day. The archive of Stalony-Dobrzański has preserved 33 cardboard paintings, including two unfinished sketches, for the stained-glass windows of the Metropolitan’s house.

The round stained-glass window, which was preserved in the Metropolitan’s house, is located in the hallway and depicts Our Lady of Sign with Christ Emmanuel on the chest and two angels in tondos[81] [fig. 10]. Just below it there is a rectangular window with stained glass divided into twelve panes with images of the Apostles [fig. 11]. Each of them holds in his hand a card with the words of Holy Scripture, in different languages. In each of four rows, three Apostles are presented: Philip,[82] James, Bartholomew[83] (bottom row); Simon,[84] Peter and Paul, Thomas[85] (second row from the bottom); Matthew, John,[86] Thaddaeus[87] (third row) [fig. 12], James, Andrew,[88] Matthias[89] (top row).

  The stained glass in the bay window on the first floor (in the south-east wall of the building) contains medallions with symbolic and figural motifs. They were placed on the abstract background consisting of colourless or slightly coloured glass panes with different textures [fig. 13]. The stained glass in the middle window consists of twelve panes arranged thematically, four in each of three rows, showing: crosses (top row), winged seraphim[90] (middle row), and the symbols of the four Evangelists: Matthew – a winged human figure;[91] Mark – a lion with wings;[92] Luke – an ox; John – an eagle (bottom row). The stained glass in the window on the right is composed of six panes where in each of three rows there are two panes, presenting: the cross and the christogram “XR” (top row), St Alexandra, St Borys and St Gleb in one medallion (middle row), St Victor and St Maurice in one medallion [fig. 14] and St Theodor Tiron (bottom row). The stained glass of the left window, also composed of six panes (with two panes in each of the three rows) presents crosses (top row), St George [fig. 15] and the Archangel Michael (middle row) and St Demetrius, St Florus and Laurus in one medallion (bottom row).

The other fifteen window sashes, deposited in the attic of the Metropolitan’s house, include 37 images of prophets, holy men and women and heavenly bodies. Panes of ten sashes in the shape of a vertical rectangle, which are mounted in pairs to fill five window openings, present the following saints: 1 – Isaiah, Micah [fig. 16], Ezekiel, Amos;[93] 2 – Jeremiah, Habakkuk, Daniel, Hosea[94] [fig. 17]; 3 – John Chrysostom and Peter Archbishop of Moscow;[95] 4 – St Catherine and three Maries[96] [fig. 18]; 5 – Archangel Michael, Archangel Barachiel;[97] 6 – Archangel Uriah, Archangel Jeremiel;[98] 7 – St Barbara, St Mary and St Irene;[99] 8 – Archangel Gabriel and Archangel Raphael;[100] 9 – St Zenaida, St Sophia the Martyr and her daughters: Faith, Hope and Charity;[101] 10 – St Pantaleon and together: Anthony, John, and Eustathius, Martyrs of Vilnius[102]. The stained glass of one horizontal sash presents heavenly bodies: Arche and Dynamis.[103] Four single square sashes show St German from Alaska, St Pelagia, Esous and St Iraida[104] [fig. 19]. All of these stained-glass windows are installed in the original wooden frames. Some of them urgently need renovation, especially the cames, certain sections of which are damaged, as well as painted parts, as faces and inscriptions are most often completely wiped out.

As was mentioned, some of Stalony-Dobrzański’s stained-glass windows commissioned by the Metropolitan Bazyli were exposed in three Orthodox centers in Warsaw. Through efforts of the mitred priest prof. dr Jerzy Tofiluk, rector of the Seminary in Warsaw, six single panes were handed over to the seminary chapel (at 27 Paryska Street), called the Entry of the Most Holy Mother of God[105] and placed in the Temple. They were incorporated in an openwork, metal door leading from the hallway to the chapel,[106] closed with fanlight, where two stained-glass windows depicting St Nicholas of Japan and St Sergius of Radonezh were installed next to each other.[107] In each door leaf two stained-glass windows were set with images of St Galina, and below her St Aleutina and St Hidita[108] (right leaf, fig. 20), and St Job of Pochayiv and Cyril and Methodius[109] (left leaf). In 2011, nine single panes were donated to the Museum of Icons[110] at 5 Lelechowska Street (Department of Warsaw Orthodox Metropolis Museum), where they were set in the three windows of the chapel nave. In the window by the iconostasis stained-glass windows depicting Archangel Selaphiel (Sealtiel), Saints Theodosius and Anthony of Kiev [fig. 21] and Archangel Jehudiel[111] were placed. The middle window was decorated with stained-glass panes presenting St Anastasia, St Julia Olszewska and Joachim and Anne,[112] the window on the right side of the door shows St Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk, St John the Russian and Euphrosyne of Polotsk.[113] The museum also stores three cardboard paintings for Stalony-Dobrzański’s stained glass designed for the Orthodox church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Gródek (1953–1955) and five cardboard paintings for the stained-glass windows for the church of St Peter and St Paul in Zawiercie (1950–1964).[114]

In 2013,[115] four single panes from the house of the Metropolitan were moved to the Museum of the Orthodox Metropolis of Warsaw at 4 Św. Cyryla i Metodego Street.[116] These stained-glass windows present: Basil the Great, Seraphim of Sarov, Gregory the Theologian and Kyriotetes.[117]

 

Museum Of Warsaw Orthodox Metropolis

Metropolitan Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz), since becoming the Metropolitan of Warsaw and Poland in 1972, had sought to create the Museum Of Warsaw Orthodox Metropolis,[118] whose seat was to be the current building of the cathedral parish of St Mary Magdalene. Stalony-Dobrzański and Aleksander Grygorowicz[119] were commissioned to produce a project adapting the building to the needs of the new institution. Because “from the very beginning the Museum had difficulties finding accommodation, premises intended for exhibition rooms were adapted to the needs of the growing parish of St Mary Magdalene, which prevented the Museum,[120] from operating”. Finally, the projects of Stalony-Dobrzański were not realised at that point. However, the vision of the artist may be recreated on the basis of the archives.

In a letter to Michał Pieczonko from 6 December 1982 the artist described his directions for the stained-glass windows to be set in the museum and included seven small designs drawn with a pencil, coloured pencils and water colours, showing the general compositional and colour concept. “If the small gold and green glass squares of new windows of the Metropolitan Museum can be removed and framed… exchanged… I propose the following: a/ from the green windows take out, as shown in the attached drawings, 24 side glass squares so that the remaining 36 squares create the sign of the cross. b/ for the yellow windows do the same. c/ swap the squares that have been removed, i.e. put the green squares where the yellow ones used to be, and the yellow ones in the place of the green ones. In this way, we will create YELLOW crosses in green windows and GREEN crosses in yellow windows. Then, I suggest to take these indelible paints which my Janek brought for the colleague Michał Pieczonko to paint the initials + MM + on the door leading to the council… and paint various crosses and stars”[121] [fig. 22].

*

Finally, we need to mention that the only stained-glass window which was commissioned from Stalony-Dobrzański by the Protestant Church is located in Warsaw. These are two glazings in the Holy Trinity Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession, which were manufactured in 1961 in Roman Ryniewicz’s workshop, showing the scene of the Nativity and Baptism of Christ.

“Stalony-Dobrzański was not a proponent of the idea of ecumenism, he had authentic ecumenist beliefs and attitude” – notices Michał Klinger. It is reflected in the sacral art of the artist, who believed that Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant churches may be “opened” in the same way, i.e. by basing the iconography on the content of the Holy Scriptures and icon, which is the “written word of God”. The use of a common source for all Christians made the artist’s work intelligible and understandable for followers of different religions.

The Byzantine-Ruthenian iconography is most prominent in the Orthodox stained-glass windows. Stained-glass windows such as DeesisResurrection of Lazarus, or Our Lady of Sign in the Orthodox Church of St John Climacus in Wola refer directly to the iconographic canon of the icon. In projects for Catholic churches[122] and the Protestant church this canon is corrected by combining motives of eastern and western iconography. In the colours of stained glass, the artist, on the one hand, tries to maintain the symbolic colour of the vestments of Christ and the Mother of God. On the other hand, however, he is very brave in juxtaposing different colours of glass pieces, which sometimes results in unrealistic colors of faces with halos. According to Michał Klinger, Stalony-Dobrzański was a very conscious and active representative of the Orthodox Church. Belonging to the young elite of Cracow painters, he demanded at the same time recognition of the Orthodox contribution to Polish culture. It may be said that he belonged to the Orthodox Renaissance in Poland, which in some sense was threatened with inauthenticity and the lack of local character. Therefore, it was easy for him to meet with Jerzy Nowosielski, or Fr. Jerzy Klinger – they formed a group with the same point of view. Their ideas were respected and admired among the clergy, especially by Metropolitan Bazyli Doroszkiewicz. This was the background and with later numerous iconographic works, Stalony created the Renaissance of Byzantine iconography in the Polish Orthodox Church, long before it revealed itself in Russia or in Greece. Stalony was an extremely colorful figure and caused a huge ferment in the Polish Orthodox Church.

[/member]

Translated by Ewelina Kwiatek


[1] E. Dwornik-Gutowska, Stalony-Dobrzański, in: Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. 41, Warszawa–Kraków 2002, pp. 497–499. The above biography is the most comprehensive source of information on the life and work of the artist. The author of this article, who prepares a dissertation at Warsaw University under the supervision of Fr. Bp prof. Michał Janocha, works on the full documentation and analysis of stained-glass windows created by the artist. At the same time, Stalony-Dobrzański’s work is documented and his art is popularized by the grandson of the artist, Jan Pawlicki (in the literature known as Jan Stalony-Dobrzański). He is the author of a website dedicated to the artist: http://stalony-dobrzanski.info.

[2] Bazyli (Włodzimierz) Doroszkiewicz (1914–1998) was the fifth Metropolitan of Warsaw and of Poland, from 1961–1970 he was Bishop of the Wrocław-Szczecin Orthodox diocese, between 1970 and 1998 – the superior of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church.

[3] Father George Klinger (1918–1976) is a Greek Orthodox priest, theologian and an ecumenist, and a vice-rector of the Christian Theological Academy in Warsaw.

[4]Cf. A. Siemieniec, Witraże Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego dla cerkwi prawosławnych we Wrocławiu, “Sacrum et Decorum. Materiały i Studia z Historii Sztuki Sakralnej” 7, 2014, pp. 104–126.

[5] Ślub Nowosielskiego, http://dstp.rel.pl/?p=4236 [accessed: 16 May 2015].

[6]Fr. Mikołaj Lenczewski, Cerkiew św. Jana Klimaka. Warszawa, Warszawa 2000, p. 10.

[7] Michał Klinger (born 1946) is a Polish Orthodox theologian, diplomat, son of Fr. Jerzy Klinger. This and subsequent quotes come from a conversation with Michał Klinger recorder on 26 May 2014 in Warsaw. The original recording is in A. Siemieniec’s archive.

[8] Jerzy Nowosielski painted a polychrome of the lower chapel in two stages – in 1956 and in 1977 or in 1979. According to Fr. Anatol Szydłowski it was 1977, but according to the subject literature it was 1979. Cf. Historia Parafii. Prawosławna Parafia św. Jan Klimaka na Woli w Warszawie, http://www.prawoslawie.pl/o-parafia/historia-parafii [accessed: 21 May 2015]; K. Czerni, Nowosielski, Kraków 2006, p. 213; J. Nowosielski, Listy i zapomniane wywiady, ed. K. Czerni, Kraków 2015, p. 49.

[9] It refers to Fr. Włodzimierz Doroszkiewicz.

[10] Archive of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański (hereinafter referred to as: AAS-D), Description of the work carried out by Adam Stalony-Dobrzański for the Orthodox church of St John Climacus in Wola, p.1.

[11] This article provides translation of all inscriptions which are quotes from Scriptures or liturgical texts in foreign languages in the footnotes. The content of the inscriptions from Old Church Slavonic (abbreviated as “OCS”) is presented in Polish thanks to dr Irina Tatarova and Fr. mitred prelate Henry Paprocki, who helped me in translation. Inscriptions written by the artist in the Polish language are included in capital letters. A distinctive feature of the inscriptions in the art of Stalony-Dobrzański is a free compilation of excerpts from various texts which make a new work and paraphrasing texts by means of synonyms or the author’s proposals for translation.

[12] Inscription by the figure of the Mother of God, translation from OCS: “I will not expel the one who comes to me but I will raise him up at the last day” (John 6, 37.40).

[13] AAS-D, Description of the work…, as in fn. 10, p. 1. Inscription by the figure of St John the Baptist, translation from OCS: “Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood live in me… and I live in them” (John 6:56); “Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matt. 3:2).

[14] The artist posted a stamp of Romana Ryniewicz’s workshop in Cracow, composed of two connected letters R.

[15] Adam Stalony-Dobrzański’s stamp, made of his woven initials, was designed by the artist in relation to Gothic signs. The letters are in the shape of St Peter’s boat imposed on the Greek cross; cf. J. Stalony-Dobrzański, Biografia, in: Stworzenie światła. Wystawa witraży Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, exhibition catalogue, National Museum Sophia of Kiev, 20 Oct. – 30 Nov. 2011, ed. J. Stalony-Dobrzański, p. 118.

[16] Irena Huml-Barcz (1928–2015) – a Polish art historian, critic, and professor of humanities.

[17] I. Huml, Witraż w cerkwi warszawskiej, “Stolica” 51/52, 1958, p. 11.

[18] Huml indicates that in Deesis iconography the artist drew from the theme which is common in the Eastern Church, as well as in the Romanesque illuminated codes. The researcher points out that Stalony’s method of presenting faces (focused, serious faces) is similar to Old-Russian icon painting, while the hieratic nature of figures refers to the style of portraying characters in Byzantine mosaics.

[19] Huml 1958, as in fn. 17, p. 11.

[20] J. Klinger, Wystawa witraży Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, “Cerkiewny Wiestnik” 4, 1957, pp. 38–42.

[21] Pracownie witraży. Krzysztof Paczka, Andrzej Cwilewicz, http://prawit.pl/index.php?id=artysci [accessed: 15 May 2015].

[22] Information communicated by Jan Pawilicki (23 May 2015).

[23] Historia Parafii…, as in fn. 8.

[24] The date on the typescript was written with a pen, perhaps at a later time.

[25] AAS-D, Description of the work…, as in fn. 10, p. 2.

[26] AAS-D, WITRAŻE wykonane w cerkwiach – Adam Stalony-Dobrzański – 1953–1978.

[27] Information communicated by Jan Pawilicki (23 May 2015).

[28] Pracownie witraży…, as in fn. 21.

[29] Information about the history and iconography of the stained-glass windows from the Orthodox church of St John Climacus in Warsaw is provided in Magdalena Rzepkiewicz’s MA thesis titled Wybrane obiekty twórczości witrażowniczej Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, written in 1991 under the supervision of prof. dr hab. Andrzej K. Olszewski at the Faculty of History and Social Sciences of the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (UKSW Library Archives, ref. catalogue number 111942).

[30] Information communicated by Jan Pawlicki (15 may 2015).

[31] At the edge of the stained-glass window a fragment of Akathist transl. from OCS.: “Indeed, you are worthy, Mother of all glory, who among all the saints gave birth to the Sacred Word, deign to accept our gift, from a future penalty save us, who together we cry out to you, Alleluia”; inscription by the figure of St John Climacus, transl. from OCS.: “We Praise You Mother of God”; inscription by the figure of the Prophet Elijah, transl. from OCS.: “More venerable than cherubs”.

[32] In the arch closing the stained glass there is an excerpt of the Lauds Song of the Holy Saturday, translation from OCS.: “Do not weep for me, mother. I will raise and ascend to Heaven” and “Those who praise you with faith and love”. The two scenes are separated with words, transl. from OCS.: “Teach us to understand Your Son. We rest our hope in you. Rejoice the cup taking us to salvation”. By the scene showing the resurrection of Lazarus, there are fragments of the Gospel: translation from OCS.: “I am the Resurrection. The one who believes in me will not die” (John 11:25) and fragments of Troparion of Saturday of St Lazarus, transl. from OCS.: “The universal resurrection before your death”.

[33] Next to the holy head there are crosses and initials “N.N.” (Latin Nomem nominandum – the surname worth naming; the abbreviation used to identify a person whose identity is not known). Below, on both sides of the shoulders, there are: a swastika and the year “1942”, the number “100 000” and crosses, which indicate the countless people killed during World War II.

[34] The presentation of the saint with this name is certainly the intention of Stalony-Dobrzański, who wanted to commemorate his sister Aleutyna. Above the figures of saints we may see liturgical texts, translation from OCS.: “You filled everything with joy, you – who came to save the world”.

[35] I. Jazykowa, Świat ikony, transl. Fr. H. Paprocki, Warszawa 2003, pp. 45–49.

[36] Inscription by the figure of David, translation from OCS.: “Serve the Lord with fear and celebrate his rule with trembling” (Psalm 2, 11); Inscription by the figure of Moses, “THE LORD YOUR GOD TO BE AFRAID AND HE IS THE ONE TO BE SERVED”.

[37] Inscription by the figure of Abraham, transl. from OCS.: “Do not be afraid, I am your shield, look at the sky and count the stars” (Genesis 15:1); inscription by the figure of Daniel, translation from OCS.: “He is present and he is the Lord who always exists, saves and works miracles”.

[38] Inscription by the figure of Micah, translation from OCS.: “The Lord trains the one he loves. Come, let us return to the Lord”; inscription by the figure of Isaiah, transl. from OCS: “How to stand before the Lord, and to worship him.”

[39] Inscription by the figure of Jeremiah, transl. from OCS.: “We will examine our deeds and find the way to metanoia. Convert us to you Lord”; inscription by the figure of Habakkuk, transl. from OCS.: “LORD, in your wrath remember mercy. Lord God the power of my”.

[40] Above the saints one may see the fragment of Gospel, transl. from OCS.: “Who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life. I will raise them up at the last day” (John 6:40).

[41] A. Tradigo, Ikony i święci prawosławni. Leksykon: historia, sztuka, ikonografia, Warszawa 2011, p. 53: “The heavenly bodies are divided into nine choirs or hosts: angels, archangels, principalities, powers, virtues, dominions, thrones, cherubs and seraphim”. Cf. Col 1, 16: “For in Him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether Thrones or Powers or Dominions or Powers”.

[42] In Hebrew, Arabic, English, German, French, Greek, Latin, Old Church Slavonic, Czech, Ukrainian, and Polish.

[43] Ἐξουσίαι – Gr. Authorities; Kυριότητης – Gr. Domionion; in this article I am presenting the names of heavenly bodies, in the form which was used by the artists (in halos). Next to the presentation there is the text, transl. from OCS.: “You, who gave birth to a spiritual light, enlighten my intelligent eyes” and an excerpt from the Divine Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts, transl. from OCS.: „Z wiarą i miłością przystąpmy, abyśmy się stali uczestnikami życia wiecznego”.

[44] Ἀρχαὶ – Gr. Principalities; Δύναμις – Gr. Powers. The presentation is accompanied by fragments of the Divine Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts transl. from OCS.: “Now the heavenly bodies invisibly act with us” and “Now the King of glory comes in”.

[45] Literature of the subject provides two names of Winogradow interchangeably – Sergei and Roman.

[46] H. Sienkiewicz, Cerkwie w krainie kościołów. Prawosławne świątynie na Mazowszu, Warszawa 2006, p. 119.

[47] Katedra Równej Apostołom św. Marii Magdaleny, Warszawa 2009, pp. 3–5, 13; Fr. Sawicki, Historia Katedry Metropolitalnej w Warszawie, in: Wiara i poznanie. Księga pamiątkowa dedykowana Jego Eminencji Profesorowi Sawie (Hrycuniakowi) prawosławnemu metropolicie warszawskiemu i całej Polski, Białystok 2008, pp. 443, 451; Sienkiewicz 2006, as in fn. 46, pp. 119, 174; M. Pilich, Warszawska Praga. Przewodnik, Warszawa 2005, pp. 80–82; P. Przeciszewski, Warszawa. Prawosławie i rosyjskie dziedzictwo, Warszawa 2011, pp. 83–91; Encyklopedia Warszawy, Warszawa 1994, p. 101; Historia parafii Katedra Metropolitalna Św. Marii Magdaleny, http://katedra.org.pl/parafia/historia/ [accessed: 15 Apr. 2015].

[48] Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, pp. 17, 23; Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, pp. 453–457.

[49] AAS-D, Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to Jerzy Metropolitan of the Łódź-Poznań diocese, Cracow 10 Jun. 1969.

[50] Ibidem. The names and surnames are recorded as the author of the document suggests. In the literature of the subject there is a note about co-workers: Bolesław Oleszka and Sotiris Pantopulos.

[51] AAS-D, Memory of A. Stalony-Dobrzański regarding the competition for the design of the Metropolitan Council of St Mary Magdalene.

[52] AAS-D, Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to the lawyer L. Pantalewicz, Cracow 20 Mar. 1969.

[53] Ibidem.

[54] Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, p. 24.

[55] AAS-D, Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to the Monuments Conservator of the Capital City of Warsaw, Cracow 22 Dec. 1968.

[56] Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, p. 457.

[57] AAS-D, Wspomnienie…, as in fn. 51.

[58] AAS-D, Opis poszerzonego projektu: rozbudowy, uporządkowania i wystroju wnętrza soboru Św. Marii Magdaleny w Warszawie, 1968.

[59] Ibidem.

[60] AAS-D, Memory…, as in fn. 51.

[61] Ibidem.

[62] AAS-D, Opis…, as in fn. 58.

[63] Ibidem.

[64] Sienkiewicz 2006, as in fn. 46, p. 175; Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, p. 24; Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, p. 458.

[65] This inscription was written in Old Church Slavonic and in Polish, cf. fn. 11.

[66] Under the stage there are fragments from the Gospel of St John, transl. from OCS.: “Mary, go to my brothers and tell them I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God” (John 20:17).

[67] AAS-D, Memory…, as in fn. 51.

[68] AAS-D, Zestawienie prac wykonanych dla kościołów katolickich oraz cerkwi w latach 1931–1977.

[69] Information communicated by Jan Pawlicki (23 May 2015).

[70] Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, p. 24; Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, p. 457–457.

[71] Michał Pieczonko (born 1948), painter, iconographer.

[72] Archive of Michał Pieczonko (hereinafter referred to as: AMP), Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to M. Pieczonko on the creation of stained-glass windows for the Metropolitan Museum, 6 Dec. 1982.

[73] AAS-D, Opis…, as in fn. 58.

[74] Ibidem.

[75] Sienkiewicz 2006, as in fn. 46, p. 174; Pilich 2005, as in fn. 47, p. 80.

[76] Aleksander Grygorowicz (born 1923) – a professor of architecture, planner, city planner and painter.

[77] AAS-D, A letter of the Metropolitan Bazyli to A. Stalony-Dobrzański and A. Grygorowicz, Warsaw 14 Feb. 1970.

[78] AAS-D, Zestawienie prac …, as in fn. 68. The dates of completion of Stalony-Dobrzański’s works, given in the documents prepared by the artist himself, are often divergent. For this reason, we need to assume that they are not accurate. Stalony-Dobrzański in the first source gives the year 1977 as the date of completion of stained-glass windows in the Metropolitan’s house, while on the pane presenting the Archangel Gabriel there is a hardly noticeable date, 1978.

[79] Information communicated by Fr. Jerzy Doroszkiewicz (27 May 2015).

[80] It is hard to establish the original number of door leaves and panes installed in these leaves. It results from dispersion of the door sets, as well as from the partial dismantling of the individual panes from window frames, where they were originally set. For the described set I provide the number of sashes that remained intact, plus the number of preserved panes that were not installed in window frames.

[81] A fragment of the prayer Praise Holy Mother of God, transl. from OCS.: “Without changing the Word You gave birth to God, You – the true Mother of God we praise”.

[82] The pane was installed with its reverse side to the front, therefore the Hebrew inscription is shown in the mirror image. “The inscription is not a literary text. The author of the stained-glass window only tries to imitate the Hebrew style of writing. He selects letters from the alphabet and arranges them in any order” – information from Fr. Prof. Mariusz Rosik (23 May 2015).

[83] Inscription by the figure of Philip, “Hebrew text”; inscription by the figure of James, transl. from OCS.: “Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matt 5:44); inscription by the figure of Bartholomew, transl. from Latin: “I desire mercy, not sacrifice” (Matt 12:7) “Heaven and earth will pass away” (Luke 21: 33).

[84] Each pane in a row includes the artist’s mark and the date “1972”.

[85] Inscription by the figure of St Simon, transl. from German: “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life” (Luke 21:33); inscription by the figures of St Peter and St Paul, “FOR WHERE THERE ARE TWO OR THREE GATHERED TOGETHER IN MY NAME THERE AM I AMONG THEM + MATT 18:20”, transl. from OCS.: “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord’, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven” (Matt 21: 7); inscription by the figure of St Thomas, transl. from Romanian: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son” (John 3:16).

[86] The pane includes the artist’s mark and the date “1972”.

[87] Inscription by the figure of St Matthew, transl. from OCS.: “He gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should have everlasting life” (John 3:16); inscription by the figure of St John, transl. from OCS.: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, so that everyone may have eternal life” (John 3:16); inscription by the figure of St Thaddeus, transl. from Finnish: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son” (John 3:16).

[88] The pane includes the artist’s mark.

[89] Inscription by the figure of St James, transl. from Ukrainian: “But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matt 5:44); inscription by the figure of St Andrew, transl. from Greek: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. It was in the beginning with God” (John 1:1); inscription by the figure of St Matthias, in English: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish” (John 3:16).

[90] Each pane depicting seraphim includes the artist’s mark and the year “1972”.

[91] The pane includes the artist’s mark and the year “1972”.

[92] Ibidem.

[93] Inscription by the figure of Isaiah, translation from OCS.: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord Almighty. The whole earth is full of his glory” (Isaiah 6:3); inscription by the figure of Micah, transl. from OCS.: “With what shall I come before the LORD and bow down before the exalted God?” (Mic 6:6); inscription by the figure of Ezekiel, transl. from OCS.: “And go to the exiles, to your people, and speak to them and say to them” (Ezek 3:11); inscription by the figure of Amos, transl. from OCS “In that day, the sun will go down at noon and the earth will darken in broad daylight” (Amos 8:9).

[94] Inscription by the figure of Jeremiah, transl. from OCS.: “Let us examine our ways and test them. Let us return to the LORD” (Lam 3:40); inscription by the figure of Habakkuk, transl. from OCS.: “LORD. In wrath remember mercy. Lord, my God, and my strength” (Hab 3:2); inscription by the figure of Daniel, transl. from OCS.: “For he is the living God and he endures forever. He rescues and he saves; he performs signs and wonders” (Dan 6: 26); inscription by the figure of Hosea, transl. from OCS.: “He has torn us to pieces but he will heal us. Come, let us return to the Lord” (Hos 6:1).

[95] Inscription by the figure of St John Chrysostom: “ROSE FROM THE DEAD +CHRIST+” trans from OCS.: “The Christ had risen from the dead and demons had collapsed” (Peri Pascha of St John Chrysostom); inscription by the figure of Peter Metropolitan of Moscow, transl. from OCS.: “Be as shrewd as snakes” (Matt. 10:16).

[96] Inscription by the figure of St Catherine “THE WORD BECAME FLESH AND MADE HIS DWELLING AMONG US, FULL OF GRACE AND TRUTH” (John 1:14); inscription by the figure of three Maries, transl. from OCS.: “You also may be where I am” (John 14:3).

[97] Inscription by the figure of Archangel Michael, transl. from OCS.: “What god is as great as our God. You are the God who performs miracles” (Ps(s) 77:14–15); inscription by the figure of Archangel Barachiel “I WILL DECLARE THAT YOUR LOVE STANDS FIRM FOREVER” (Ps(s) 89:2), transl. from OCS.: “Do not hide your face from me” (Ps(s) 27:9), “IN THE MORNING MY PRAYER COMES BEFORE YOU” (Ps(s) 88:13).

[98] Inscription by the figure of Archangel Uriah, transl. from OCS.: “For with you is the fountain of life. In your light we see light. Continue your love to those who know you. In your light we see light” (Ps(s) 36:10). Inscription by the figure of Archangel Jeremiel, transl. from OCS.: “I will sing to the Lord in my life. Come, let’s worship Christ”.

[99] Inscription by the figure of St Barbara, transl. from OCS.: “You will be hated by everyone because of me” (Matt 10:22); inscription by the figures of St Mary and St Irene, transl. from OCS.: “I desire mercy, not sacrifice” (Matt 12:7).

[100] The pane includes the artist’s mark and the year “1978”. Inscription by the figure of Archangel Gabriel, transl. from OCS.: “My soul glorifies the Lord. The true Mother of God we praise”, the inscription by the figure of Archangel Raphael, transl. from OCS.: “Cleanse me with hyssop, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow Create in me a pure heart, O God” (Ps(s) 56:9.12).

[101] Inscription by the figure of St Zenaida, transl. from OCS.: “But whoever disowns me before others, I will disown before my Father in heaven” (Matt 10:33); inscription by the figures of St Sophia the Martyr and her daughters: Faith, Hope and Charity, transl. from OCS.: “Praise the children of the Lord”.

[102] Inscription by the figure of St Pantaleon, transl. from OCS: “Ask and it will be given to you” (Matthew 7:7); inscription by the figures of St Anthony, John and Eustahius, Martyrs of Vilnius “BUT TAKE HEART + I + HAVE OVERCOME THE WORLD” (John 16:33).

[103] Transl. from OCS.: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made” (John 1:1.3).

[104] Inscription by the figure of St Germana, transl. from OCS.: “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation” (Mk 16:15); inscription by the figure of St Pelagia, transl. from OCS.: “Whoever finds their life will lose it, and whoever loses their life for my sake will find it” (Matt 10:39); inscription by the figure of Esous, transl. from OCS.: “In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind.” (John 1:4) and “Holy, Holy, Holy” – written in Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit; inscription by the figure of St Iraida: “FEAR of + GOD is the BEGINNING of WISDOM” (Sir 1, 14).

[105] Prawosławne Seminarium Duchowne. 50 lat, Białystok 2001, p. 13; Prawosławne Seminarium Duchowne, http://www.psd.edu.pl/site.php?s=NDZiYmViOTEwMDI5ODE=&a=ZDQxZDFlMzEwMDI5ODE= [accessed: 27 Mar. 2015].

[106] Ten years after they were removed from the Metropolitan’s house, the cames were slightly bent and therefore they were sent to the metal workshop of Roman Karpiński in Bielsk Podlaski. The renovation encompassed the repair of metal elements and setting the panes into new metal frames. The workshop also manufactured a new metal door which was decorated with stained-glass windows.

[107] Inscription by the figure of St Nicholas of Japan, transl. from OCS.: “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord’, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven” (Matt 7:21); inscription by the Figure of St Segius of Radonezh, transl. from OCS.: “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God” (Matt 5:8).

[108] Inscription by the figure of St Galina, transl. from OCS.: “I am sending you out like sheep among wolves” (Matt 10:16); inscription by the Figure of St Aleutina and St Hidita, transl. from OCS.: “So don’t be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows” (Matt 10:31).

[109] Inscription by the figure of St Job of Pochayiv, transl. from OCS.: “Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. Rejoice and be glad. You are the salt of the earth” (Matt 5:11.13); inscription by the figure of St Cyril and Methodius “WHOEVER DOES NOT GATHER WITH ME SCATTERS” (Luke 11:23), “FOR WHERE TWO OR THREE GATHER IN MY NAME, THERE AM I WITH THEM.” (Matt 18:20).

[110] https://www.facebook.com/muzeumikonwarszawa [accessed: 17 May 2015]. The museum houses the Orthodox Pastoral Point of the Martyr Archimandrite Grigol Peradze, and the main hall plays the role of St Grigol Peradze’s chapel; Orthodox parish of the Martyr Archimandrite St Grigol Peradze, http://www.liturgia.cerkiew.pl/ [accessed: 29 May 2015].

[111] Inscription by the figure of Archangel Selaphiel, transl. from OCS.: “Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good; his love endures forever” (Ps(s) 118:1); inscription by the figures of St Theodosius and St Anthony of Kiev, transl. from OCS.: “But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matt 5:44); inscription by the figure of Archangel Jehudiel:: “+NOT TO US + LORD + NOT TO US BUT TO YOUR NAME BE THE GLORY” (Ps(s) 115:1), transl. from OCS.: “Point my feet to Your words”.

[112] Transl. from OCS.: “We will not stop. God has all the words”.

[113] Inscription by the figure of St Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk: “FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME IS WITH US THE LIGHT + LET’S GO SO THAT YOU WILL NOT BE ENSHROUDED BY DARKNESS”; inscription by the figure of St John the Russian transl. from OCS.: “Glory be to Thee o Christ, our God, that illuminate the day with light and the night with dawns of fire”; inscription by the figure of St Euphrosyne of Polotsk, transl. from OCS.: “I was a stranger and you invited me in” (Matt 25:35).

[114] This is the cardboard painting for the stained-glass window from the northern arm of the transept, showing scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary, and two cardboard paintings for the stained-glass windows of the nave, representing the Council of the Seventy Apostles. Next to them there are displayed five cardboard paintings depicting the Apostles: Philip, Matthew, Thomas, John and Andrew.

[115] The information given by Fr. Łukasz Kolęda (18 May 2015).

[116] Muzeum. Centrum Kultury Prawosławnej im. świętych Cyryla i Metodego w Warszawie, http://ckp.warszawa.pl/muzeum/ [accessed: 17 May 2015].

[117] Inscription by the figure of Basil the Great, transl. from OCS.: “The harvest is plentiful but the workers are few. Ask the Lord of the harvest, therefore, to send out workers into His harvest” (Matt 9:37–38); inscription by the figure of St Seraphim of Sarov, transl. from OCS.: “But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness” (Matt 6:33), “But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven” (Matt 6:20); inscription by the figure of Gregory the Theologian, transl. from OCS.: “Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matt 10:28) inscription by the figure of Kyriotetes, transl. from OCS.: “The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it” (John 1:5).

[118] Muzeum. Centrum Kultury…, as in fn. 116.

[119] AAS-D, Letter of Metropolitan Bazyli…, as in fn. 77.

[120] Muzeum. Centrum Kultury…, as in fn. 116.

[121] AMP, Letter of Stalony-Dobrzański…, as in fn. 72.

[122] Stained-glass windows designed by the artist may be found in Catholic churches in, e.g. Trzebownisko, Stalowa Wola, Nysa, Annopol, Zawiercie.

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