The activity of Franciszek Białkowski and Władysław Skibiński. A contribution to the research on the work of Warsaw stained-glass studios

Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska

Corpus Vitrearum Polska

Association for Stained Glass Art “Ars Vitrea Polona”

Abstract:

In 1902, a stained glass studio was established in Warsaw by Franciszek Białkowski and Władysław Skibiński. The cooperation between them soon ran its course and by1905, the two artists were already running two independent companies, producing stained-glass windows intended mainly for Roman Catholic churches throughout the Kingdom of Poland.

“The Białkowski & Co. Artistic Stained Glass Studio”, awarded at multiple Polish and international exhibitions, produced figural and decorative stained glass designed by the owner himself and by other artists, such as Jan Kanty Gumowski (Żyrardów), Konrad Krzyżanowski (Brześć Kujawski, Limanowa), Eligiusz Niewiadomski (Konin), Jan Henryk Rosen (Lviv, the Armenian Cathedral and the Church of St Mary Magdalene), Edward Trojanowski (Lubraniec). The atelier was closed down in c. 1930.

We only know of a few sacred stained-glass decorations produced by the other workshop discussed in the article, the “Skibiński Artistic Stained Glass Studio” (Kalisz, Czarnia, Opatówek, Mełgiew, Czarnożyły. Ciechocinek). At least some (e.g. those in Kalisz) were designed by Skibiński himself; the only designer known to have collaborated with the workshop was Włodzimierz Tetmajer (the “Under the Eagles” Chapel in Kalisz). The atelier was shut down in c. 1921, and its stock of glass was bought by the owner of the S.G. Żeleński Cracow Stained Glass Studio, who later frequently enlisted Skibiński’s services as an experienced stained-glass artist.

The purpose of this article was to present preliminary conclusions concerning the two ateliers and to inspire scholars to conduct further research on the little known subject of the Warsaw stained-glass industry in the 1st half of the 20th century.

Keywords: Franciszek Białkowski, Władysław Skibiński, Warsaw, Poland, 20th c., stained glass

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The history of many stained-glass studios in Warsaw in the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century still remains uncharted.[1] One such studio is the atelier owned by Franciszek Białkowski and Władysław Skibiński (both of whom later worked independently), founded at the threshold of the 20th century.

Biographical information about the owners is scant. A graduate of the Warsaw Drawing School, Franciszek Białkowski was born on 3 December 1871 and died on 25 April 1928; he lived the life of an artist and painter. “Educated at foreign institutions, he came to specialize in decorative arts, and, in particular, the composition and production of stained glass. His atelier enjoyed wide popular renown”.[2] Białkowski’s contemporaries emphasized that the professional training he received abroad allowed him to “elevate stained glass to the dignity of art”.[3] Even less can be said about Władysław Skibiński; facts as basic as the dates of his life still remain unconfirmed. He is probably the same person as the W. Skibiński who discussed the paintings of Jan Styka at a Poznań exhibition in 1895,[4] and a certain Skibiński of unknown name, a decorator who, ten years later, gave a talk about the “nature and production of stained-glass images” at a Warsaw painting school for women, Conti,[5] and the author of a stained-glass work entitled Autumn.[6]

It may be assumed that Franciszek Białkowski and Władysław Skibiński began to co-operate in 1902; the two artists presented their joint works already as early as 1903 (more details below). Seeing himself as the sole successor to the company, Białkowski later dated its establishment to 1902 as well. Moreover, an article published in 1912 reported that Białkowski’s company had been in operation for ten years.[7] “The art and painting workshop of F. Białkowski and W. Skibiński” was based in Warsaw, at 48 Polna Str.[8] At the beginning of 1903, stained-glass windows from the “workshop of Franciszek Białkowski and Skibiński” were showcased at an exhibition organized by the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts in Warsaw.[9] A year later, the same gallery displayed a stained-glass window manufactured by “Białkowski i S-ka” [Białkowski & Co.], intended for the palace of the Tyszkiewicz family in Spińczyce near Berdyczów. The press reported at that time:

This interesting work combines the virtue of technical artistry and a beautiful, tasteful idea in order to illustrate (on the left side) the following ancient legend: at the end of the 13th century, during a fierce battle against the crushing Tatar invasion near the town of Berdyczów, an early forbear of the Tyszkiewicz family made a solemn vow: if he survives the horrific massacre, he will erect a church on the site. No sooner had he made the vow than an angel took him by the hair and whisked him away from the battlefield over the heads of astounded Tatar troops. Count Tyszkiewicz soon forgot his promise; punished with baldness, he remembered it and hastened to build a church in Berdyczów. The right side of the window depicts the original structure. It is adorned with the image of the Mother of God. The armours of troops bear the emblem of Leliwa, the coat of arms of the Tyszkiewicz family. The count himself is clad in gold and blue (his ancestral colours) and a crimson delia. The far background fades away into a beautiful perspective of purple.[10]

It is known that Franciszek Białkowski and Władysław Skibiński were commissioned by Józef Mehoffer to make a replica of two stained-glass works, Faith, Hope, Love and Caritas, which he designed in 1901 for the tomb chapel of the Grauers in Opawa. The works decorated the interiors of the painter’s successive apartments and are now on show at the Józef Mehoffer’s House.[11] One bears an inscription: MADE BY/F. BIAŁKOWSKI AND W. SKIBIŃSKI/ FROM A CARTON BY/ JÓZEF MEHOFFER. Whether the atelier only produced the replicas or the earlier original stained-glass windows in the Opawa chapel as well remains a moot question. If the latter is true, a question is in order: why did the artist commission the windows to the workshop run by Białkowski and Skibiński rather than to the also young Cracow Stained Glass Studio of Władysław Ekielski and Antoni Tuch?[12]

The “Białkowski & Co.” also produced stained-glass windows for the left arm of the transept at the neo-Gothic church of St Stanislaus in the neighbourhood of Wola, Warsaw (built to the design by Józef Pius Dziekoński in 1894–1904).[13] Other than that, we only know of one more stained-glass project the two artists carried out together: the stained-glass windows at the manor house of Maria Stecka and Jan Stecki near Lublin, built in the Zakopane style to the design by Stanisław Witkiewicz. According to a note the owner passed on to Witkiewicz, “the two windows in the vestibule are fitted with stained glass artwork of our design [peacock feathers in a Hutsul “pretzel” pot], made by Mr. Białkowski and Mr. Skibiński from Warsaw”.[14] At this juncture, it is worth noting that the literature on the subject often attributes the design to Stanisław Witkiewicz himself.[15]

The cooperation between Franciszek Białkowski and Władysław Skibiński soon ran its course, and by 1905 the two artists were already running two independent companies.

Translated by Urszula Jachimczak


[1] It seems that the oldest company in Warsaw was that of Maria Łubieńska; the first stained-glass to emerge from her “painting atelier for women”, later converted into the Atelier of St Lucas, dates back to 1875. It

is not known is Jan Silberberg’s “steam factory of mirrors and stained glass” produced stained-glass windows right from its launch in 1857; the exact meaning behind its name likewise remains a mystery. Sometime before 1886, Józef Kosikiewicz founded yet another workshop, which was still in operation in 1903. The artist might be identical or related to one Stanisław Kosikiewicz, a porcelain painter, who founded his own “paint shop for window glass” after the porcelain painting workshop of the Cybulski brothers closed down (he is mentioned in: W. Przybyszewski O warszawskich składach fajansu, porcelany i szkła, o malarni Kazimierza Cybulskiego i o filiżance z niej pochodzącej, “Almanach Muzealny”, vol. 3, 2001). In 1891, Jan Kosiński opened a glazing workshop, which also produced stained glass; the company was still in operation in 1931, run by Mieczysław Kosiński. The workshop of Michał Olszewski entered the fray before 1920.

[2] Sprawozdanie Komitetu Towarzystwa Zachęty Sztuk Pięknych w Warszawie za rok 1928, Warszawa 1929 (unpaged).

[3] Znawca, Kilka słów o witrażach, “Wieś Ilustrowana” 3, 1912, no. 11 (November), last page (unpaged). My thanks go to Edwin Śmiłek from the Scientific Antique Store in Cracow for ma king me aware of this source.

[4] W. Skibiński, Chorał Kornela Ujejskiego w obrazach Jana Styki, “Przegląd Poznański”, 1895, no. 47, pp. 558–559.

[5] Albertus, [Felieton warszawski]. Pogadanka o witrażach, “Życie i Sztuka”, 1905, no. 14, p. 9.

[6] Reproduction in: “Życie i Sztuka” (a supplement to “Kraj”), 1900, no. 18, p. 261.

[7] Znawca 1912 (fn. 3).

[8] Księga adresowa przemysłu fabrycznego w Królestwie Polskim na rok 1904, ed. L. Jeziorański, Warszawa 1903, item 3471.

[9] Wystawa w Towarzystwie Zachęty Sztuk Pięknych w Warszawie witraży wykonanych w zakładzie Franciszka Białkowskiego i Skibińskiego, “Ziarno”, 1903, no. 7, p. 139 [I didn’t succeed in finding a copy].

[10] K., Ze sztuki stosowanej, “Tygodnik Ilustrowany”, 1904 [2nd half year], no. 48 (26/13 November), p. 926.

[11] A. Zeńczak, Zespół witraży Józefa Mehoffera w kaplicy grobowej rodziny Grauerów w Opawie, “Rozprawy Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie. Seria Nowa” 1, 1999, p. 83. My thanks go to the author for pointing out that the artist himself ordered the replicas.

[12] Just as the atelier of Białkowski and Skibiński, the workshop operated from 1902.

[13] J. Dziekoński, (Zbudowany podług…), “Architekt” 6, 1905, vol. 7, item 110. The other windows were fitted with “lead-framed panels from the Atelier of St Lucas”.

[14] Letter from Jan Stecki to Stanisław Witkiewicz, dated 19 October 1904, after: Listy o stylu zakopiańskim 1892–1912 wokół Stanisława Witkiewicza, introduction, footnotes, and editing by M. Jagiełło, Kraków 1979, p. 330.

[15] A. Kurzątkowska, Zakopiańskie” dzieło Stanisława Witkiewicza pod Lublinem, “Biuletyn Historii Sztuki” 42, 1980, no. 1, pp. 99 and 101; Andrzej Laskowski, „… Ku estetycznej stronie zawodu …”. Rola architektów w odrodzeniu sztuki witrażowej w Galicji na przełomie XIX i XX wieku, “Rocznik Krakowski” 73, 2007, p. 141.

[16] Księga adresowa przemysłu fabrycznego w Królestwie Polskim na rok 1906, ed. L. Jeziorański, Warszawa 1905, item 1243; Adresy Warszawy na rok 1909, ed. A. Żwan, Warszawa 1908, p. 16.

[17] The studio found a new home in 1920 at the latest: Księga adresowa „Warszawa” na rok 1920, ed. T. Koźmiński, Warszawa 1920, p. 656.

[18] Księga adresowa… 1905, ad no. 140 and Adresy Warszawy… 1908, ad, col. 771 (fn. 16).

[19] Księga adresowa przemysłu, handlu i finansów 1922, Warszawa (no date), item 6324.

[20] [Ad], ”Goniec Częstochowski” 8, 1913, no. 233 (26 VIII), p. 1.

[21] Księga adresowa Polski (wraz z W. M. Gdańskiem) dla handlu, przemysłu, rzemiosła i rolnictwa 1930, Warszawa (no date), p. 1945.

[22] Sprawozdanie … 1929 (fn. 2). While we know that Skibiński worked on Józef Mehoffer’s designs, we have no knowledge of the stained-glass pieces made by Białkowski based on the cartons of Stanisław Wyspiański. More information in the “other” artists will be provided below.

[23] Księga adresowa… (fn. 19), ad no. 701.

[24] Dom Sztuki. Katalog Domu Sztuki na wystawie przemysłowo-rolniczej w Częstochowie R. 1909 sierpień–wrzesień (supplement to “Architektura” and “Przegląd Techniczny”).

[25] Rev. S. Muznerowski, Lubraniec (Monografia). Z dołączeniem 6-ciu ilustracji, Włocławek 1910, pp. 119–120. My thanks go to Ryszard Piechowiak, the Poznan-based art historian, for this and many other bibliographical suggestions concerning stained-glass windows in churches throughout Wielkopolska.

[26] Window themes quoted after: K. Optołowicz, Z dziejów kościołów parafialnych w Lubrańcu, “Głos Lubrańca”, 2012, no. 5, p. 13 (article published at www.parafia-lubraniec.pl; last accessed on 28 August 2012) and based on a photo gallery published on the same website.

[27] J. Wapiennik-Kosowicz, Z badań nad secesyjnymi witrażami w kościele Matki Bożej Pocieszenia w Żyrardowie i… niedoszłym dziełem Józefa Mehoffera. Zagadnienie atrybucji, w: Witraże secesyjne. Tendencje i motywy, ed. T. Szybisty, Kraków–Legnica 2011, pp. 111–119.

[28] K. Pawłowska, Witraże Niewiadomskiego w Koninie, “Witraż”, (no date), no. 2, pp. 35–38 (Białkowski’s given name is erroneously listed as Tadeusz). In 2011–2012, the windows underwent conservation at the OBIEKT Stained Glass and Mosaic Studio in Pobiedziska. My thanks go to Marcin Czeski, the owner of the studio, for this piece of information. The biographical note on the artist (M. Leśniakowska, Niewiadomski Eligiusz, in: Słownik Artystów Polskich, vol. 6, Warszawa 1998, pp. 78–79) mentions works underway on the polychromes and the four stained-glass windows for the Kalisz church (only St Isidore is clearly specified), whose designs were approved in 1909 by the Department of Painting and Sculpture of the Society for the Protection of Monuments of the Past. It may well be that these windows are the ones referred to in three sketches (described as “unidentified” in the note) presented at the exhibition of the Society for the Encouragement of Fine

Arts in Warsaw at the turn of 1912 an 1913, which showcased carton designs of the polychromes intended for the Konin church and related drawings.

[29] Pawłowska (fn. 28), p. 35.

[30] K. Pawłowska claims that the angels have features reminiscent of “the women of Klimt and the angels of Mehoffer”.

[31] After: S. Ferenc, Dzieje kościoła w Liskowie, liskow.ovh.org./sub/kosciol_liskow.htm [accessed: 3 July 2012]. The author ventures a supposition that the windows of the presbytery may have been designed by Konrad Krzyżanowski.

[32] Information based on Program konserwacji witraży w katedrze pw. Opieki NMP w Radomiu. Wersja I, Kraków 28 X 2007, ed. Pracownia Furdyna, katedra.radom.opoka.org.pl [accessed: 2 October 2011].

[33] E. Stachurska, Zabytki architektury, in: Monografia Brześcia Kujawskiego, ed. B. Głębowicz, Włocławek 1970, pp. 195–196. At around the same time, Krzyżanowski designer stained-glass windows for the church in Głuchów near Skierniewice, consecrated in 1908, which may have also been produced by Białkowski.

[34] I. Balowa, Krzyżanowski Konrad, in: Słownik Artystów Polskich, vol. 4, Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków–Gdańsk 1986, p. 314.

[35] S. Kuliński, Monografia Brześcia Kujawskiego. Pamiatka 700-lecia istnienia kościoła parafialnego, Włocławek 1935 (reprint published on the occasion of the 760th anniversary of city rights, no place, no date), p. 58.

[36] H. Gwiazdowska, Kościół parafialny p.w. św. Stanisława Biskupa: www.brzesckujawski.pl [accessed: 20 July 2012].

[37] Dom Sztuki… 1909 (fn. 24), item 98.

[38] Ibidem, items 84 and 98. Designed by a Warsaw architekt, Hugo Kuder, the church was consecrated in 1903. The interior was furbished over the next few years; in 1909, for instance, the organs were put in place. Currently, only three stained-glass windows in the rosettes are ever replaced.

[39] M. Górzyński, Plac Sienkiewicza. Kościół Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa, św. Jana Chrzciciela, www.atlasturek.internetdsl.pl [accessed: 21 August 2012].

[40] Misterium Józefa Mehoffera w kościele Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa w Turku, Turek 2008, eds. W. Grzeszkiewicz, B. Stachowiak, introduction by J. Wapiennik-Kossowicz, B. Stachowiak, p. 13; Jerzy Bardoński, Tradycja i współczesność pracowni „Powalisz” w Poznaniu, in: Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, eds. K. Pawłowska and J. Budyn-Kamykowska, Kraków 2000, p. 184.

[41] The archives of the Natural Museum in Drozdów. Household documents of the Lutosławski estate, set: Firmy, inv. no. 8, pp. 1–4. My thanks go to Marcin Rydzewski for familiarizing me with the contents of this correspondence.

[42] W Tereszkach na Wołyniu, “Tygodnik Ilustrowany” 52, 1911 (1st half year), no. 1 (7 January), p. 12.

[43] My thanks go to Andrzej Skalski, a stained-glass conservator from Józefów, near Warsaw, for this piece of information and other valuable suggestions.

[44] J. Żywicki, Architektura neogotycka na Lubelszczyźnie, Lublin 1998, p. 209. The parish archives hold bills issued for the windows.

[45] [Ad], “Tygodnik Wileński” 1, 1911, no. 2 (after p. 21); Znawca 1912 (fn. 3).

[46] From 1911, the parish church in Chojnata was run by Father Michał Woźniak; the first decision he took in office was to renovate the church and replace its windows. My thanks for this information go to A. Skalski.

[47] Żywicki 1998 (fn. 44), p. 197 mentions the windows. The information that they were made by Białkowski comes from personal communication with A. Skalski.

[48] Pacholczyk worked at the atelier since 1905 (cf. M. J. Żychowska, Współczesne witraże polskie, Kraków1999, p. 16, fn. 16. His name is also mentioned in the correspondence about the church in Drozdów, cf. fn. 41.

[49] Żywicki 1998 (fn. 44), p. 255; Archidiecezja lubelska. Historia i administracja, ed. M.T. Zahajkiewicz, Lublin 2000, p. 224.

[50] Adam Żeleński, Wykaz robót witrażowych od 1929 r. 1. IX, manuscript, private collections.

[51] Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce (hereinafter: KZS), vol. 11: Województwo bydgoskie, book 18: Włocławek i okolice, eds. W. Puget, T. Chrzanowski and M. Kornecki, Warszawa 1988, p. 22. The biographical note on the artist (H. Kubaszewska, Kotarbiński Mieczysław, in: Słownik Artystów Polskich 1986 (fn. 34), pp. 173–175) does not mention his engagement in stained-glass art.

[52] Information obtained from A. Skalski.

[53] Sz. J. Wroński, Bazylika Matki Boskiej Bolesnej w Limanowej. Kościół – pomnik Konstytucji 3 Maja, Limanowa 2001, pp. 104–107.

[54] Ibidem, pp. 103–110, figs. 84–85; idem, Limanowskie witraże Józefa Mehoffera, “Almanach Ziemi Limanowskiej” 9, 2002, p. 14, cf. almanach.limanowa.org.pl [accessed: 1 October 2012].

[55] Archidiecezja lubelska 2000 (fn. 49), p. 224. The windows were renovated by the S. G. Żeleński Cracow Stained Glass Studio in 1951 and in 1971–1975.

[56] W. Wyganowska, Maszkowski Karol, in: Słownik Artystów Polskich, vol. 5, Warszawa 1993, p. 413.

[57] Iza Żeleńska’s letter to her son Adam from 21 January 1926, private collections.

[58] Iza Żeleńska’s letters to her son Adam from 1924 (undated) and 2 May1925, private collections.

[59] Pruszków – kościół św. Kazimierza, wpg.alleycat.pl [accessed: 30 August 2012].

[60] L. Kijewska-Wittstock, Działalność społeczno-kulturalna właścicieli i pracowników fabryki ołówków „Majewski i S-ka” na tle zarysu historii fabryki w latach 1889–1948, graduation paper completed under the supervision of Prof. Andrzej Chojnacki, Warszawa 2005, p. 18 (www.pruszkow.pl/pdf/majewski, accessed: 30 August 2012). In January 1945, stained-glass windows in the southern part of the church were destroyed by the force of the explosion, when the ammunition warehouse in nearby Lasek Komorowski was blown up by the retreating German troops.

[61] Letter sent by Father W. Kwapiński to the S. G. Żeleński studio on 8 May 1937, archives of the S.G. Żeleński studio (hereinafter: SGŻ), private collections, file As 690 (found by the author of the article during archival search in 1999).

[62] J. Wolańska, Katedra ormiańska we Lwowie w latach 1902–1938. Przemiany architektoniczne i dekoracja wnętrza, Warszawa 2010, p. 356, fn. 4.

[63] Ibidem, stained-glass windows are discussed in chapter: Malowidła w katedrze ormiańskiej we Lwowie, pp. 169–304, figs. 143,145,190,192a, b, 226a, b, c; H. Małkiewiczówna, Ikonografia witraży, in: A. Maciej, Problemy konserwatorskie witraży projektu J. H. Rosena z katedry ormiańskiej pw. Wniebowzięcia NMP we Lwowie. Próba ich rozwiązania na przykładzie konserwacji górnej kwatery witraża „Św. Paweł” z zastosowaniem współczesnych klejów syntetycznych, Kraków 2004, copy stored at the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow.

[64] J. Smirnow, Witraże Jana Henryka Rosena (do 1939 roku), in: Witraż w architekturze. Architektura na witrażu, eds. J. Budyn-Kamykowska, K. Pawłowska, Kraków 2011, pp. 145–154; idem, Lwowski kościół św. Marii Magdaleny, www.lwow.com.pl/rocznik/2006/smirnow1 [accessed: 30 August 2012]; Wolańska 2010 (fn. 62), p. 356, fn. 3.

[65] KZS, vol. 10: Województwo warszawskie, book 11: Ostrołęka i okolice, eds. I. Galicka, H. Sygietyńska, M. Kwiczała, Warszawa 1983, p. 8. Stained-glass windows dated to c. 1930. The church, damaged in WWI, held a polychromy made by Władysław Drapiewski in 1930–1935.

[66] Księga adresowa Polski (fn. 21), p. 1945.

[67] E.g. in the restaurant at the Savoy Hotel in Warsaw, 58 Nowy Świat Str., c. 1905 (“Przegląd Techniczny”, 1906, no. 32, tabl. 37; www.gawronski.net.pl/miejsca/nowy-swiat-przed-wojna, accessed: 25 October 2011); the Łaźnia pod Messalką bathhouse in Krakowskie Przedmieście, c. 1910, www.warszawska.info/srodmiescie/krakowskie-przedmiescie, accessed: 25 July 2012); the Agricultural Bank in Nowogrodzka Str., 1927 (H. Faryna-Pankiewicz, Gmach d. Banku rolnego, “Spotkania z zabytkami”, 2007, no. 9, p. 7).

[68] Księga adresowa 1905 (fn. 16), item 1252.

[69] Ibidem, ad no. 140.

[70] Księga adresowa przemysłu fabrycznego w Królestwie Polskim na rok 1908, ed. L. Jeziorański, Warszawa 1907, item 1215.

[71] Księga adresowa 1920 (fn. 17), col. 656; Księga adresowa przemysłu (fn. 19), item 6332.

[72] Księga adresowa 1920 (fn. 17), col. 656.

[73] Iza Żeleńska’s letter to Father Antoni Ratuszny, a parish priest in Tarnopol, from 27 June 1925, SGŻ, inv. no. As 415 (private collections).

[74] Ibidem; D. Czapczyńska, Krakowski Zakład Witrażów, Oszkleń Artystycznych i Mozaiki Szklanej S. G. Żeleński. Uwagi na marginesie prac nad monografią, in: Dziedzictwo 2000 (fn. 40), p. 155.

[75] Iza Żeleńska’s letters to her son Adam from 1924 and the end of 1924 (undated), private collections.

[76] Words of Władysław Kościelniak, a Kalisz painter, quoted in: Niepokonana i Wzniosła. Katedra św. Mikołaja w Kaliszu, text by A. Gaweł, photo by W. Zdunek, Bydgoszcz 2000. My thanks go to prelate A. Gaweł for his remarks in the letter from 25 August 2007 (private collections).

[77] J.A. Nowobilski, Sakralne malarstwo ścienne Włodzimierza Tetmajera, Kraków 1994, pp. 77–78.

[78] After: ibidem, p. 188.

[79] KZS 1983 (fn. 65), p. 2.

[80] Correspondence between the studio and the parish priest, Father Czesław Kruszyński, November 1950 – October 1951; a letter dated 1 February 1951 mentions the producer – correspondence stored at SGŻ, inv. no. As 842 (private collections). R. Plebański, Witraże krakowskie w kościołach Wielkopolski przed I wojną światową, “Kronika Wielkopolski”, 2010, no. 3 (135), pp. 91, 101; the author suggests that all these windows were produced at the S.G. Żeleński Cracow Stained Glass Studio before WWI, probably on the basis of signatures placed on some of them.

[81] Plebański 2010 (fn. 80), pp. 91, 101. The author applies the same dating to all windows.

[82] Żywicki 1998 (fn. 44), p. 261.

[83] Photograph published at: polskaprowincja.pl/kosciol-w-melgwi [accessed: 3 October 2012].

[84] W. Przygoda’s letter to the S. G. Żeleński studio from 2 August 1913, SGŻ, documents from 1913.

[85] Photograph in: Kościół św. Bartłomieja w Czarnożyłach – jeden z witraży (iconographic document), cyfrowa.pbp.sieradz.pl/dlibra [accessed: 2 September 2012].

[86] K. Hewner, Parafia Świętych Apostołów Piotra i Pawła w Ciechocinku, 2nd edition, Ciechocinek 2009, pp. 29–30. The author erroneously mentions „M.” Skibiński.

[87] Ibidem, p. 29 and fig. 30. Damaged during the Nazi occupation, the window was reconstructed in 1959 by Edward Kwiatkowski. The conservator probably misread the name initial in the signature and mistook the “W.” for an “M.”.

[88] M. Omilanowska, Świątynie handlu. Warszawska architektura komercyjna doby wielkomiejskiej, Warszawa 2004, p. 271, il. 520–522.

[89] J. Frycz, Odrodzenie sztuki witrażowej w XIX i XX wieku, “Szkło i Ceramika”, 1974, no. 6, p. 183 (two works are mentioned; the atelier is said to have operated between 1907 and 1924); Żychowska 1999 (fn. 48), p. 16, fn. 16 (the dates are quoted after Frycz; no works are mentioned).

[90] Sz. Świątek, Z prac nad słownikiem firm witrażowych w Polsce w XX wieku, in: Dziedzictwo 2000 (fn. 40), pp.191, 193 (the opening dates are listed as 1913 for Białkowski’s atelier and 1905 for Skibiński’s atelier; no works are mentioned).

[91] We know that Skibiński designer the stained-glass for the nave of the Kalisz parish. I am inclined to credit Białkowski with the cartons to the Assumption of Mary, used in an ad from 1911, as well as with cartons for the window at the palace in Spińczyce, produced in glass in cooperation with Skibiński.

[92] In an autobiography written down towards the end of his life, the artist recalls that he was employed by Białkowski in 1907, cf. J. Żywicki, Jana Gumowskiego motywy polskie, Lublin 2003, p. 41, and Wapiennik-Kossowicz 2011 (fn. 27), p. 118. This information is contradicted by another statement put forward in another book on Gumowski’s art: J. Żywicki, Gdańsk w litografii Jana Gumowskiego, Lublin 2003(=“Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska”, vol. I), p. 49 and in a biographical note on the artist: E. Szczawińska; Gumowski Jan Kanty, w: Słownik Artystów Polskich, vol. II, Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków–Gdańsk 1975, p. 518.

[93] A research project entitled Korpus witraży z lat 1800–1945 w kościołach rzymskokatolickich metropolii krakowskiej i przemyskiej, led by Prof. Wojciech Bałus.

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