The Forgotten Passion of Franciszek Mączyński, an Architect[1]

Danuta Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska

Association for Stained Glass Art “ARS VITREA POLONA”, Kraków


Franciszek Mączyński (1874–1947), a well-known architect, connoisseur and lover of ancient buildings, had an obvious penchant for designing stained glass through all of his professional life, which has remained relatively unnoticed by researchers, focusing on his work as an architect.

Mączyński’s stained glass decorates sacred and secular buildings, sometimes also those designed by him. Many of them are lead-glass ones, made of colourless, semi-opaque glass with small multi-coloured plaques with coats of arms (the castle chapel in Żywiec, c. 1905) or most often with architectural motifs (predominantly towers, bell turrets and domes of Kraków churches, which were used by him for the first time around 1904 in the windows of the cloisters in the Convent of Discalced Carmelite Sisters at Łobzowska Street in Kraków).

The polar opposite of these architectural miniatures is an exquisite stained-glass depiction of the wooden church at Komorowice Krakowskie, placed in the fanlight over the entrance to the new brick church in this village. Interesting lead-glass windows are used by the architect in the cloisters of the Franciscan Friary in Kraków, whose renovation he supervised (c. 1908). Mączyński was also familiar with figural compositions, as evidenced by the stained glass panels with the figures of saints at the church in Mogilany near Kraków and the Calced Carmelite Church in Kraków (1930). In the church stained glass Mączyński employed as well decorative and symbolic motifs (vases filled with flowers and fruits with hearts incorporated into them in the nave windows of the Jesuit Church at Kopernika Street in Kraków, 1912). The same theme, without symbolic overtones, was used by him later in stained glass intended for secular buildings. However, for his interior designs he preferred motifs from nature or architecture.

Designing stained glass was not only Franciszek Mączyński’s passion, but also a hard work of many years as the Art Director of Krakowski Zakład Witrażów S.G. Żeleński. for which he also designed exhibition pavilions (among which the most interesting was the one for the Universal National Exhibition in Poznań in 1929).

keywords: Franciszek Mączyński, stained glass, lead glass, Poland, 20th century, Krakowski Zakład Witrażów i Mozaiki S.G. Żeleński


Franciszek Mączyński, born in 1874 in a poor family in Wadowice, died in Kraków as a renowned architect after seventy three years of a very busy life.

Having graduated in 1892 from the Department of Building at the State Industry School in Kraków, he began his career in the studio of the architect Sławomir Odrzywolski. He continued it with Tadeusz Stryjeński, with whom he was professionally associated for a long time. He travelled extensively through Europe and Poland.[1] In his everyday life and during his travels he never let go of his sketchbook,[2] and his penchant for putting the objects he found interesting on paper resulted in two books.[3]

Franciszek Mączyński is best known as the creator of public buildings, churches, palaces, mansion blocks and villas, built in styles ranging from modernized historicism and Art Nouveau to functionalism. His interests were more wide-ranging than just architecture,[4] as he also designed interiors and some of their details. Stained glass was the subject of his particular interest. However, surprisingly little research has been done on this area of his work. Only four stained glass projects designed by him for sacred buildings – apart from the unrealized design of the stained glass window for the Szafraniec chapel in the Wawel cathedral[5] – are mentioned in the literature on the subject: Jerzy L. Kontkowski recounted the stained glass windows designed by Mączyński for the nave of the Jesuit Church at Kopernika Street in Kraków, described already in 1932 by Helena d’Abancourt de Franqueville,[6] and he added the information on the stained glass for the convent of the Discalced Carmelite Sisters at Łobzowska Street in Kraków;[7] this author mentions as well – without citing the source – heraldic stained glass for the castle chapel in Żywiec.[8] Rafał Solewski, the author of a monograph on Mączyński, added to Kontkowski’s list the stained glass at the Franciscan monastery,[9] but he puts in doubt the authorship of the stained glass from Żywiec.[10] Recently Andrzej Laskowski has noticed Mączyński’s participation in the revival of the stained glass in the Austrian Galicia.[11] Architectural glass designed by Mączyński for secular buildings was mentioned for the first time by Krystyna Pawłowska, who attributed to him the stained glass in the staircase windows in the building of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Kraków.[12] Many other works by Mączyński in this field have been discovered lately.[13]

The characteristic features of his stained glass designs are spare brush strokes, an inclination for synthetic view which – particularly in his secular designs – sometimes borders on abstraction, and also fondness for combining geometrical compositions, made of colourless, semi-opaque glass framed in lead with small plaques made with the use of classical techniques. Most of Mączyński’s stained glass projects were intended for the interiors of the new buildings designed by himself or in collaboration with other architects as well as for historic buildings on whose conservation he worked. Almost all of them were made by Krakowski Zakład Witrażów [The Kraków Stained Glass Workshop].[14]

Translated by Monika Mazurek

[1] Mączyński’s life and works, mostly the architectural ones, are thoroughly discussed in: J.L. Kontkowski SJ, Jezuicki kościół Serca Jezusa w Krakowie, Kraków 1994; R. Solewski, Franciszek Mączyński i wspólnota sztuk w architekturze miasta. realizacja idei „Gesamtkunswerk” we wczesnej twórczości krakowskiego architekta, in: “Rocznik Krakowski” 61, 1995, pp. 97–118; idem, Stary Kraków Franciszka Mączyńskiego, in: “Rocznik Krakowski” 62, 1996, pp. 118–138; idem, Matnia. środowisko architektoniczne Krakowa i Lwowa na przełomie XIX i XX wieku,in: “Rocznik Krakowski” 64, 1998, pp. 75–103; idem, Franciszek Mączyński (1874–1947) – krakowski architekt, Kraków 2005 (=Akademia Pedagogiczna im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie. Prace Monograficzne, no. 421). Cf. also: T. Bednarski, Mączyński Franciszek, in: Polski Słownik Biograficzny, vol. XX, Wrocław 1975, pp. 334–336; U. Bęczkowska, Architektura klasztoru ss. karmelitanek bosych przy ul. Łobzowskiej w Krakowie, in: “Modus” 5, 2004, pp. 59–113.

[2] The Society of the Friends of Fine Arts in Kraków holds the deposit of Prof. Jacek Mączyński, containing a few dozens of Franciszek Mączyński sketchbooks and notebooks as well as his pocket diaries from the period 1895–1945, with his drawings – impressions from his travels, design sketches and notes. His legacy includes also the photographic portraits of the artist and buildings designed by him, press clippings, sketches and pictures. I would like to thank Ms. Anna Joniak from the Society of the Friends of Fine Arts and Ms. Anna Gryboś, the granddaughter of Prof. J. Mączyński, for their kind permission to access them.

[3] F. Mączyński, Ze starego Krakowa. Ulice, bramy, sienie, Kraków 1908; idem, Po drodze. Ze szkicowników architektonicznych, Kraków 1931.

[4] Apart from architecture he studied sculpture at the Kraków’s Fine Arts Academy (1902–1904) with Konstanty Laszczka.

[5] Konkurs na witraż do kaplicy Szafrańców na Wawelu, in: “Architekt” IV, 1903, issue 3, col.40; I. Huml, Warsztaty Krakowskie, Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków–Gdańsk 1973, p. 179; Kontkowski 1994 (ft. 2), p. 254; Solewski 2005 (ft. 2), p. 143.

[6] H. d’Abancourt de Franqueville, Witraże w sztuce religijnej, in: O polskiej sztuce religijnej, ed. J. Langman, Katowice 1932, p. 135; Kontkowski 1994 (ft. 2), p. 89.

[7] Kontkowski 1994 (ft. 2), pp. 105, 255.

[8] Ibidem, p. 56.

[9] Solewski 1996 (ft. 2), p. 124; Solewski 2005 (ft. 2), p. 132.

[10] Solewski 2005 (ft. 2), p. 178.

[11] A. Laskowski, „…Ku estetycznej stronie zawodu”. Rola architektów w odrodzeniu sztuki witrażowej Galicji na przełomie XIX i XX wieku, in: “Rocznik Krakowski” 73, 2007, p. 126.

[12] K. Pawłowska, Witraże w kamienicach krakowskich z przełomu XIX i XX wieku, Kraków 1994, pp. 118, 201.

[13] Cf.: footnote 1 and D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, Katalog witraży i innych przeszkleń ozdobnych w kamienicach i budynkach użyteczności publicznej w Krakowie, vol. 1–3, 2001–2003, MS, the archive of the City Office for Conservation of Historic Buildings; eadem, Witraże w Krakowie. Dzieła i twórcy, in: “Krakowska Teka Konserwatorska” 5, 2005, p. 91.

[14] A workshop founded in 1902 by Władysław Ekielski and Antoni Tuch, owned by Stanisław Gabriel Żeleński from 1906, from 1914 run by Iza Żeleńska. For the history of the workshop see: A. Laskowski, Działalność Krakowskiego Zakładu Witrażów Władysława Ekielskiego i Antoniego Tucha, in: Dziedzictwo polskiej sztuki witrażowej, eds. K. Pawłowska and J. Budyn-Kamykowska, Kraków 2000, pp. 132–149; D. Czapczyńska, Krakowski Zakład Witrażów, Oszkleń Artystycznych i Mozaiki Szklanej S.G. Żeleński. Uwagi na marginesie prac nad monografią, in: Dziedzictwo…, pp. 150–161; D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2005 (ft. 14), pp. 48–58.

[15] Kopiał listów Krakowskiego Zakładu Witrażów, including the period from February to November, 1904, c. 700, the archive of the Kraków Stained Glass Workshop S.G. Żeleński (further referred to as: S.G. Żeleński), the query was made in 1999, before assigning the catalogue numbers.

[16] Nowy kościół i klasztor w Krakowie, in: “Przegląd Techniczny” 44, 1906, no. 32, p. 380.

[17] Quot. after: Solewski 2005 (ft. 2), p. 10, ft. 10.

[18] “Nieustająca Wystawa Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie”, October – November 1910, points 118–130; cf.: Kontkowski 1994 (ft. 2), p. 105.

[19] In the fourth, northern branch on the side of the cloister garth there are monks’ cells.

[20] A small stained glass portraying the dome of the Church of Saint Peter and Paul, based on Mączyński’s design which is currently in the holdings of the Regional Museum in Toruń (inv. no. MT/Gr./ 5483) belongs to the heirs of Stanisław Wyspiański and is considered to be his work; cf.: Kraków miastem snów i widziadeł, the concept and selection by M. Rydlowa, Kraków 1995, p. 61: a photo of the stained glass signed: The Dome of the Church of Saint Peter and Paul Seen From the Artist’s Studio (Wyspiański’s) at Poselska Street and a quotation from a letter from Wyspiański to Lucjan Rydel in which the dome of this church is mentioned.

[21] Its origins are unknown – the stained glass has been recently left at the convent’s gate.

[22] Cf.: Kalendarium według notatników [Timeline according to the notebooks] (by Mączyński), ed. I. Trybowski, MS in the Society of the Friends of Fine Arts (no cat. no.): the information about the note in the notebook no. XII, dated 3 February 1904. One of Mączyński’s drawings showing the Piarist church in a characteristic rhomboid frame (private collection). The drawing of the Wawel cathedral towers from 1904 was published by Mączyński in: Po drodze (ft. 4), tabl. 24.

[23] Mączyński 1908 (ft. 4), passim.

[24] Clearly inspired by Stryjeński’s monogram designed by Stanisław Wyspiański for the stained glass windows called A Debt of Gratitude at St Mary’s Church in Kraków (1891).

[25] Bęczkowska 2004 (ft. 2), p. 86.

[26] Kronika klasztoru, vol. VI, 1938–1961, The Archive of the Discalced Carmelite Sisters in Kraków (no cat. no.); Ankieta strat dóbr kultury, The State Archive in Kraków, cat. no. ZMKr 287.

[27] The Regional Museum in Toruń, inv. no. MT/GR/5479.

[28] A photograph of the interior of the oratory at the Carmelite Sisters Church in Kraków, photo by T. Jabłoński, 1905, The Archive of the Carmelite Sisters in Kraków (no cat. no.)

[29] Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2001–2003 (ft. 14), card: 25 Focha Street.

[30] Ibidem, card: the mansion house at 19 Rynek Główny; Kamienica w Rynku Gł. 19. Ekspertyza konserwatorska, by H. Rojkowska, M. Filipowicz, MS, The City Project Office, Kraków 1984 (only the maker of the stained glass noted).

[31] A clipping from “Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny” only with the year date, private collection. The award was granted to Ewa Szucka from Zakopane.

[32] A letter by I. Żeleńska to her son Adam, undated (late 1928?), private collection.

[33] The captions contain information on the depicted object and the name “Krakowski Zakład Witrażów S.G. Żeleński” or “Krakowski Zakład Witraży i Mozaiki”. On one of the sketches (depicting St Alexander’s Church) there is also a note “R.P. 1928”.

[34] Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2001–2003 (ft. 14), card: 17 tefana Batorego Street.

[35] Mączyński 1908 (ft. 4), tabl. 6.

[36] Ibidem, tabl. 18, 20, 29, 70.

[37] The stained glass in the outlet store of Adam Piasecki’s chocolate factory in the house at 33 Rynek Główny from 1932, the drawing in: Ze starego Krakowa (ft. 4), tabl. 54, watercolour from 1933, the deposit of Prof. Jacek Mączyński in the Society of Friends of Fine Arts, cf.: footnote 3.

[38] The drawings (in pencil, crayon, watercolour and ink) from the period 1904–1945, the deposit of Prof. Jacek Mączyński in the Society of Friends of Fine Arts, cf.: footnote 3; the drawing in the album Ze starego Krakowa (ft. 4), tabl. 66; a design sketch for a stained glass panel, private collection; an undated project, the Regional Museum In Toruń, inv. no. MT/GR/5457; the stained glass from c.1929 in the mansion house at 17 Batorego Street and from c. 1932 in A. Piasecki outlet store at 33 Rynek Główny in Kraków.

[39] Mączyński 1931 (ft. 4), p. 24.

[40] Z. Sroczyński, Żeleńscy, Warszawa 1997, p. 138. In December 1939 the ailing Mączyński moved into the parish meeting room.

[41] The greetings were sent to his friends Waleria and Karol Sroczyński (Waleria was the daughter of Iza and Stanisław Gabriel Żeleński), the card can be reproduced here thanks to the kind permission of late Mr. Zbigniew Sroczyński.

[42] Mączyński 1931 (ft. 4), tabl. 2 (the towers of the Old Town Hall and St Catherine’s Church, drawn in 1900), tabl. 13 (Les Invalides in Paris, drawn in 1900); tabl. 43 (The dome of the Florence cathedral, drawn in 1927).

[43] Kaplica zamkowa w Żywcu, in: “Przegląd Techniczny” 44, 1906, no. 32, pp. 380–381.

[44] “Nieustająca Wystawa Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie”, October – November 1910, points 109–111.

[45] The files Żywiec kościół i Zarząd Dóbr Żywieckich, the archive of S.G. Żeleński workshop (query made in 1999 before assigning the catalogue numbers). It is worth noting that the Management Head of the Żywiec Estate was Franciszek’s brother, engineer Mieczysław Mączyński, who was also at the same time the chairman of the Babia Góra Branch of the Polish Tatra Mountain Association.

[46]The archive of St John the Baptist parish in Komorowice, Liber memorabilium penes Ecclesiam parochialem in Komorowice, card 145; A. Żeleński, Wykaz robót witrażowych od 1. IX 1929, MS, private collection; a photograph by Adam Żeleński, before 1939, the National Museum in Kraków, inv. no. the Photography Department, the collection of A. Żeleński, pos. 180; J. Polak, Szkice z dziejów parafii komorowickiej 1772–1992, in: Pięćsetlecie rzymskokatolickiej parafii Bielsko-Biała Komorowice, Bielsko-Biała 1993, p. 49. The church shown in this stained glass was moved in 1947–1949 to an open-air museum at Wola Justowska in Kraków, it burned down in 2002.

[47] The church was built in 1921–1930 according to the design of Emanuel Rost of 1907 – Polak 1993 (ft. 47), pp. 37, 45–49.

[48] In the deposit of Prof. Jacek Mączyński (cf. footnote 3) is an undated drawing of the church tower in Komorowice. Perhaps it was made at the time when in 1921 Franciszek Mączyński undertook to design a new brick church, including preserving the tower of the old wooden church – Liber memorabilium (ft. 47), card 125; Polak 1993 (ft. 47), p. 45.

[49] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, O witrażach z końca XIX wieku w dwóch gotyckich kościołach w Krakowie, in: Witraże w obiektach zabytkowych. Między konserwacją a sztuką współczesną, Malbork 2009, pp. 151–154; eadem, the catalogue cards of sixteen stained glass panels in the cloisters, MS 2009, the archive of the Regional Office for the Conservation of Historical Buildings in Kraków.

[50] Alojzy Karwacki, Pamiętnik, transcript, MS, the archive of the Franciscan Friary in Kraków, card 232.

[51] Ibidem, card 235. Mączyński’s love for textured glass can be seen also in the later geometric designs (from the 1930s) of glazing for secular buildings, among others in Syndykat Hut (the Steel Works Syndicate) and Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego (the National Economic Bank) in Katowice, in the Rosner villa at Focha Street in Kraków

[52] “Nieustająca Wystawa Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie”, May 1910, pos. 170.

[53] Solewski 1996 (ft. 2), p. 124.

[54] Kontkowski 1994 (ft. 2), p. 89.

[55] D’Abancourt de Franqueville 1932 (ft. 7).

[56] They can be found, among others, in the sketches made around 1928 (the archive of S.G. Żeleński, cat. no. R 618 and R 1069), in the stained glass fanlight over the entrance to Adam Piasecki house at 53 Długa Street in Kraków (c. 1937), in the door glazing of a small workshop pavilion at the Eastern Fair in Lviv from 1922 (The Jagiellonian Library, cat. no. Rkp, BJ Przyb. 183/63, Księga wycinków dotyczących Krakowskiego Zakładu Witraży S. G. Żeleńskiego. Materiał prasowy z lat 1902–1948, card 64v. I would like to thank Mr. Tomasz Szybisty for pointing out this source to me).

[57] Żeleński (ft. 48); the record cards of the stained glass windows “Saint John Corsini and John Soreth” and “Saint Bernold and John of the Cross” in the Church of Calced Carmelites at Piasek, MS 2010, the archive of the Regional Office for the Conservation of Historical Buildings in Kraków.

[58] Żeleński (ft. 47); the record cards “Saint Peter and Paul” and “The Holy Family” in St Bartholomew’s Parish Church in Mogilany, MS 2010, the archive of the Regional Office for the Conservation of Historical Buildings in Kraków. The church in Mogilany suffered considerably during the fighting in September 1939. Among the original windows, only two are extant, albeit badly damaged, which were not renovated until the early 1960s; the preservation of the original is difficult to estimate. In the photograph by Adam Żeleński made before 1939 only a fragment of the stained glass with St Peter and Paul is visible, The National Museum in Kraków, the Photography Department, inv. no. MNK-XX-Zż-181

[59] Poświęcenie nowego kościoła, in: “Czas” 83, no. 289 (17 Dec 1930), p. 3.

[60] D. Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska, „Dzielna niewiasta”. Iza z Madeyskich Żeleńska (1878–1956), in: Żeby wiedzieć. Studia dedykowane Helenie Małkiewiczównie, Kraków 2008, p. 339.

[61] Sroczyński 1997 (ft. 41), pp. 137–138 and the information received from the author during numerous conversations.

[62] A letter from Franciszek Mączyński to Iza Żeleńska of 9 July 1921, quoted after: Czapczyńska-Kleszczyńska 2008 (ft. 60), p. 344. Mączyński himself also designed lampshades, cf. Księga wycinków (ft. 56), card 68.

[63] A letter from Iza Żeleńska to Karol Sroczyński (her son-in-law) of 13 Oct 1927, private collection.

[64] The plans of both pavilions, the archive of S.G. Żeleński Workshop (the query made in 1999, before assigning the catalogue numbers); Księga wycinków (ft. 56), card. 58, 63v., 68.

[65] P. Cabanne, supplemented by A. Sieradzka, Encyklopedia sztuki art déco, Warszawa 2002, p. 208.

[66] A letter from I. Żeleńska to her son Adam of 28 Nov 1928, private collection.

[67] The Regional Museum in Toruń, inv. no. MT/Gr/8496/1–6. I would like to thank Ms. Agata Rissmann, the custodian, for her information about the folder with six cartoons of the project, recently acquired by the Museum.

[68] J. Olejnik, Piękno zaklęte w szkle, in: „Słowo Powszechne” 25, 1971, no. 109; J. Skrabski, Kościoły Grybowa. Monografia historyczno-artystyczna, Kraków 2010, p. 148; A. Kostrzyńska-Miłosz, Sztuka w rzemiośle na Powszechnej Wystawie Krajowej w Poznaniu, in: “Biuletyn Historii Sztuki” 71, 2009, no. 4, p. 559 (the author gives just the surname of the designer of the pavilion, without his first name); a photograph of the pavilion also in: A. Szczerski, Pytania o sztukę dla II Rzeczypospolitej. Powszechna Wystawa Krajowa w Poznaniu w 1929 roku, in: “Alma Mater”, 2003, no. 49, p. 19; Cabanne, Sieradzka 2002 (ft. 65), p. 204. Adam Żeleński collected assiduously newspaper clippings with the articles and photographs of the pavilion, cf.: Księga wycinków (ft. 56), k. 91–101.

[69] Skrabski 2010 (ft. 67); “Rzeczy Piękne” 8, 1929, no. 4–6 (a photograph of the stained glass).

[70] A letter from A. Żeleński to his mother of 16 August 1929, private collection.

[71] A sketch in the file Mączyński, S.G. Żeleński archive (the query made in 1999, before assigning the catalogue numbers).

[72] H. Pyka, Witraż „Ukrzyżowany na skrzydłach Serafina” Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w kaplicy Kurii Metropolitalnej w Katowicach, in: Witraże na Śląsku, ed. T. Dudek-Bujarska, Katowice 2002, pp. 67–74; W. Bałus, Sztuka sakralna w Krakowie. Część II. Matejko i Wyspiański, Kraków 2007 (=Ars vetus et nova, vol. 26), p. 129f.

[73] Skrabski 2010 (ft. 67), p. 147.

[74] A. Kopyciński, Krakowski Zakład Witrażów, Oszkleń Artystycznych i Fabryka Mozaiki Szklanej w Krakowie S.G. Żeleński, Kraków 1929, p. 12.

[75] Solewski 1995 (ft. 2), p. 98

[76] Laskowski 2007 (ft. 12), p. 142f.

[77] Mączyński 1931 (ft. 4), p. 21.

[78] K. Buczkowski, W. Skórczewski, Dawne polskie szkła malowane, in: “Arkady” 2, 1936, no. 4, p. 231 – the authors’ acknowledgments for Mączyński’s help.

[79] Konkurs na witraż do kaplicy Szafrańców (ft. 4); Dla katedry na Wawelu…, „Architekt” 4, 1903, issue 9, col. 95. Finally it was Józef Mehoffer’s design that was selected for execution, cf.: A. Zeńczak, Malowidła ścienne i witraż w kaplicy Szafrańców przy katedrze na Wawelu 1906–1908, in: Józef Mehoffer. Opus Magnum, Kraków 2002, pp. 181–184.

[80] In 1907, 1910 and 1919.

[81] Wystawa prac p. Fr. Mączyńskiego, in: “Architekt” 11, 1910, issue 11, p. 174.

[82] “Nieustająca wystawa” (ft. 45), pos. 109–111 and 118–130, 75–79, 112–117, 131, 134.

[83] Odznaczenie krajowej firmy, in: “Czas” 60, no. 89 (18 April 1907), the evening edition, p. 3.

[84] T. Stryjeński, Kraków. Działalność jego architektów w ciągu wieku XIX aż do naszych czasów, the archive of Tadeusz Stryjeński in the holdings of the Polish Academy of Science archive, cat. no. III 135, vol. 57, quoted after: Solewski 2005 (ft. 2), p. 156.

[85] Kopyciński 1929 (ft. 73), p. 12. Mączyński in the period between two world wars designed stained glass for the churches in, among others, Aleksandrów Łódzki, Klukowo, Łącko, Pleśna, Sucha Beskidzka, Trzebinia and secular buildings in Bielsko, Gdynia, Katowice, Kozy near Biała, Kraków and Lviv. Even during the German occupation he made designs executed by the S.G. Żeleński workshop Żeleński, cf.: Żeleński (ft. 47).

[86] Bednarski 1975 (ft. 2), p. 335.

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