Millennial celebrations of Poland’s Christianization in Poznań – a page in the visual war history of Poland

Michał Haake

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań

[1]

Abstract

In 1966 the authorities of communist Poland celebrated the Millennium of the Polish State. The celebrations commenced at the beginning of the decade. Their purpose was to oppose the “ideological offence” of the Catholic Church that was, during the same time, celebrating the Millennium of Christianity in Poland. The conflict between the two parties, in which the communists did not refrain from physical repressions, also took on the character of a visual war. The way this war looked was heavily influenced by the accusations of the communists against the Polish clergy concerning pro-German and pro-revisionist sympathies evoked by The Pastoral Letter of the Polish Bishops to their German Brothers and their call for mutual forgiveness. This study focuses on the visual war in Poznań, with special attention paid to the decoration prepared for the main state-organised celebrations in Mickiewicz Square, Church celebrations near the Cathedral, and exhibitions devoted to the subject in the National Museum in Poznań. The conflict between the communists and the Polish episcopate was interpreted as another manifestation of the many centuries of struggle, including via visual representations, between the Catholic Church and its adversaries.

Keywords: Polish Millennium, visual wars, Poznań Cathedral of St Peter and St Paul

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In recent decades the 1966 millennial celebrations of Poland’s Christianization have been the subject of intense studies conducted by historians[2]. However, little attention has been paid to the role of the pieces of visual culture in the popularisation of the millennial ideas both by the Catholic Church and the state authorities. This study focuses on the subject only from the point of view of the celebrations in Poznań,[3] and more specifically on the rivalry between the Church and the state that used paintings for that purpose. Information about the celebrations and fine arts projects in other cities and towns has been provided only to offer a context that allows better understanding of the dynamics of the rivalry.

Church celebrations of the millennial anniversary of the personal baptism of Mieszko I began on 3 May 1957 in Częstochowa with the Jasna Góra National Vows. The following nine years, i.e. the period of the Great Novena, was a period devoted to making those vows a reality. The Jubilee – “Te Deum of the Nation” – was inaugurated with a ceremonial renewal of Holy Baptism Vows in Gniezno cathedral on 9 April 1966[4]. The main celebrations in Poznań, both Church-organized in front of the cathedral, as well as state-organized in Adam Mickiewicz Square, took place on 17 April.

The communist authorities fought hard against the activities of the Catholic Church. The ideology of Marxism and Leninism rejected religion and perceived it as an obstacle that stood in the way of progress towards a better future[5]. Until the end of Władysław Gomułka’s time in power, i.e. until 1970, the Church was a target of ceaseless repressions. The events of the Polish October 1956 did not bring any significant changes in terms of the attitude of the communist authorities towards the Church, although the communists slightly changed their methods, e.g. they gave up on certain violent behaviours or agreed to compromise with regard to the appointment of bishops. However, the concessions were accompanied by an array of anti-Church activities (e.g. calling up seminarists for military service and increasing the fiscal burden for the Church). Those ostensible gestures should be perceived as temporary and part of a set of tactics[6]. In the year preceding the jubilee a pretext to intensify the fight with the Church was found in The Pastoral Letter of the Polish Bishops to their German Brothers sent on 18 November 1956, which was condemned by the Communist authorities for its “anti-national and antisocialist attitude that was conducive to German revisionism”. The concerted attack on the authors of the letter was without a doubt the largest anti-episcopal propaganda campaign in the whole history of the Polish People’s Republic.[7] The anniversary of Poland’s Baptism was to be overshadowed by a grand celebration of 1,000 years of the Polish State.[8] Resolutions adopted by the Polish Council of State (18 February 1958) and the Sejm (25 February 1958) concerning the celebrations did not mention in any way the baptism of Mieszko I, which indicated that the intention was to organise only a lay ceremony. The resolution of the Polish Council of State expressed a belief that the celebrations of one thousand years of Polish statehood were going be a great experience for the whole nation that would foster awareness of the nation’s proud history and contribute to increasing the efforts put into building socialism.[9] The Church’s millennial programme was considered to be contrary to historical truth, anti-Communist and an insult to Poland’s vital interests.[10]

The persecuted Church entrusted its fate to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The main theme of the Great Novena was a project that consisted in displaying one particular painting, which was a faithful copy of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, in all parishes in Poland [fig. 1]. During a journey that was inaugurated on 19 June 1957 in Warsaw, the painting was transported on a car platform to other cities where Church celebrations were organised.[11] The Communists tried to discredit Marian devotion by, for example, sending to the members of Vatican Council a confidential memorandum, prepared by the Polish Security Service in 1963, entitled Remarks on negative aspects of Marian devotion in Poland.[12] They attempted to popularise a view that the peregrination of the painting of Our Lady of Czestochowa contributed to the “creation of an atmosphere conducive to lack of tolerance”.[13] The car with the painting was stopped multiple times and a number of orders were given to change the route to confuse the faithful. On 6 May 1966 in Cracow, the painting was detained for three hours, and on 7 May the police attacked people who had gathered to see the painting leave, making arrests. Finally, on 20 June in Liksajny the police hijacked the car with the painting and transported it to Warsaw. In front of the window of a Cathedral presbytery where the painting was placed, thousands of people gathered to see it. The police interrupted prayers and provoked scuffles. On 2 September near Będzin, the painting was “arrested” again and escorted to Częstochowa where it remained guarded by the police until 1972[14].

 


[1] I would like to thank Professor Konrad Białecki from Institute of History of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań for the consultations regarding this text.

[2] Sources: Obchody milenijne 1966 roku w świetle dokumentów Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych, Warszawa 1998; P. Raina, “Te Deum” narodu polskiego. Obchody tysiąclecia chrztu Polski 1966/1967, Olsztyn 1991; Kościół w PRL. Kościół katolicki a państwo w świetle dokumentów 1945–1989, study by P. Raina, Poznań 1995; Tajne dokumenty państwo–Kościół 1960–1980, Londyn 1996; Uroczystości milenijne 1966 roku. Sprawozdania Urzędu Spraw Wewnętrznych, Warszawa 1996. Earlier studies: J. Tomziński ZP, Jasnogórska Maryja w życiu i służbie ks. Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, prymasa Polski, “Studia Claromontana” 2, 1982, pp. 5–45; Zapomniany rok 1966. W XXX rocznicę obchodów Tysiąclecia Chrztu Polski, eds. L. Mażewski, W. Turek, Gdańsk 1996; Millennium polskie. Walka o rząd dusz, ed. C. Wilanowski, Warszawa 2002; B. Noszczak, “Sacrum” czy “profanum”? – spór o istotę obchodów Milenium polskiego (1949–1966), Warszawa 2002; Milenium czy Tysiąclecie?, ed. B. Noszczak, Warszawa 2006; Milenium kontra Tysiąclecie – 1966, eds. K. Białecki, S. Jankowiak, J. Miłosz, Poznań 2007.

[3] On celebrations in Poznan: Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 212–215; S. Jankowiak, Wielkopolska. Poznań, in: Milenium czy Tysiąclecie? 2006 (fn. 2), pp. 323–327; M. Fąka, Kościelne obchody milenijne w Archidiecezji Poznańskiej, in: Milenium kontra Tysiąclecie… 2007 (fn. 2), pp. 139–143; K. Białecki, Obchody Milenium Chrztu Polski i Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego w Poznaniu w roku 1966, “Kronika Miasta Poznania”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 227–249.

[4] Cf. Projekt obchodów, in: Raina 1991 (fn. 2), pp. 29–41; T. Krawczak, Kalendarium obchodów milenijnych, in: Millennium polskie… 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 20–26; Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 75–111.

[5] D. Thirlet, Marks czy Maryja? Komuniści i Jasna Góra w apogeum stalinizmu, Warszawa 2002, pp. 110–126.

[6] Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 163–178; J. Żaryn, Dzieje Kościoła katolickiego w Polsce (1944–1989), Warszawa 2003, pp. 157, 179.

[7] Text of Orędzie see: Kościół w PRL… 1995 (fn. 2), v. 2, pp. 356–364; J. Wnuk, Finale soboru i Episkopat polski, Warszawa 1996, p. 198; Noszczak, 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 179–191; Żaryn 2003 (fn. 6), pp. 185–218; idem, Episkopat Polski w drodze do Orędzia (1945–1965), in: Wokół Orędzia. Kardynał Bolesław Kominek, prekursor pojednania polsko-niemieckiego, eds. W. Kucharski, G. Strauchold, Wrocław 2009; idem, “Katolicy koncesjonowani” a recepcja Orędzia biskupów w Polsce, in: idem, Kościół, naród, człowiek, czyli opowieść optymistyczna o Polakach w XX wieku, Warszawa 2012, pp. 171–187, 188–206.

[8] Cf. T. Krawczak, Centralne władze partyjno-rządowe wobec Millennium, in: Millennium polskie… 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 9–19; Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 113–161; T. Krawczak, Partyjno-państwowa koncepcja obchodów Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego, in: Milenium kontra Tysiąclecie… 2007 (fn. 2), pp. 58–83.

[9] Cf. Rada Państwa obejmuje kierownictwo przygotowań jubileuszu. W latach 1960–1966 obchody Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego, “Trybuna Ludu”, 1958, no. 53 (23 Feb.), p. 1; as in: Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), p. 115.

[10] Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 163–177; Krawczak 2007 (fn. 8), pp. 64–65.

[11] Instytut Prymasowski w Choszczówce, Komisja Milenijna Episkopatu Polski, report no. 2, 16 Jan. 1957, p. 20; cf. J. Jełowiecka, Nawiedzenie polskich parafii przez kopię obrazu Matki Bożej Jasnogórskiej, “Studia Claromontana” 2, 1982, pp. 91–107; Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 105–107; Peregrynacja wizerunku Matki Bożej Jasnogórskiej w duchownym krajobrazie Polski ku przyszłości (1957–2007). Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum Mariologiczno-Maryjne. Jasna Góra 4–5 maja 2007 r., ed. o. Z.J. Jabłoński OSPPE, Częstochowa 2007.

[12] S. Cenckiewicz, Sprawa anty-maryjnego memoriału, czyli o tym, jak bezpieka “uczestniczyła” w Soborze Watykańskim II, “Arcana”, 2004, no. 55–56, p. 118.

[13] P. Raina, Jasnogórskie Śluby narodu polskiego, Warszawa 2006, p. 74.

               [14] On the subject of the repressions against the image of Jasna Góra, see Krawczak 2007 (fn. 8), pp. 79–80.

[15] List pasterski arcybiskupa poznańskiego Antoniego Baraniaka objaśniający posłanie uroczystości poznańskich 1966 roku; as quoted in: Fąka 2007 (fn. 3), pp. 138–139.

[16] State Archive in Poznań (hereinafter as: APP), A.B.-I. Protokoły z posiedzeń z Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej 1956 r., PRN – P-Ń, ref. 146, Protokół Nr 10/56 z posiedzenia Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej z dnia 11 IV 1956. Prezydium Miejskiej Rady Narodowej w Poznaniu. Wydział Architektoniczno-Budowlany; APP, A.B.-I. Protokoły z posiedzeń z Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej 1961 r., PRN – P-Ń, ref. 1580, Protokół Nr 13/61 z posiedzenia Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej z dnia 15 marca 1961. Prezydium Miejskiej Rady Narodowej w Poznaniu. Wydział Architektoniczno-Budowlany; APP, A.B.-I. Protokoły z posiedzeń z Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej 1962 r., PRN – P-Ń, ref. 1581, k. 82–85, Protokół Nr 6/62 z posiedzenia Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej z dnia 23 marca 1962. Prezydium Miejskiej Rady Narodowej w Poznaniu. Wydział Architektoniczno-Budowlany.

[17] APP, A.B.-I. Protokoły z posiedzeń z Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej 1958 r., PRN – P-Ń, ref. 1577, Protokół Nr 38/58 z posiedzenia Miejskiej Komisji Urbanistyczno-Architektonicznej z dnia 15 IX 1958. Prezydium Miejskiej Rady Narodowej w Poznaniu. Wydział Architektoniczno-Budowlany.

[18] More information about the history of the monument, its reconstruction and original form, as well as its multi-layered semantics, can be read in: M. Haake, “Chrzest narodu się nie skończył, on się tylko w 966 roku zaczął i trwa od tysiąca lat”. Poznański Pomnik Tysiąclecia Chrztu Polski jako wizualizacja przewodniej idei kościelnych obchodów millenijnych (in print).

[19] Cf. Archiwum Konserwatora Zabytków Miasta Poznania, Katedra, v. 1. A 148: Orzeczenia (Decision no. 34/65, 9 Jul. 1965).

[20] More about the history of the competition: cf. A. Fąk, 100 zł. “Mieszko i Dąbrówka” – historia najpiękniejszej monety okresu PRL, http://lodz.ptn.pl/mieszko-i-dabrowka [accessed: Jan. 2017].

[21] I decided not to describe the very important issue of differences between the styles of Bieńkowski and Gosławski.

[22] This was in line with the Resolution dated 5 April 1966 made by the joined presidiums of the Voivode and Poznan Committee of the Front of National Unity regarding the erection of the monument to Mieszko I and Bolesław Chrobry in Gniezno.

[23] Żaryn 2003 (fn. 6), pp. 234–241.

[24] Listy pasterskie Episkopatu Polski, Paris 1975, pp. 834–836.

[25] Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 179–191; Żaryn 2003 (fn. 6), pp. 185–218.

[26] “We have returned to these ancient lands of ours thanks to the victory of the Soviet Union, Polish Army, and other allies over Hitler’s fascism. Thanks to the effort of the whole society these lands have been put to use and irrevocably merged with the body that is the Polish People’s Republic”; Resolution of the Polish People’s Republic Sejm on the preparations of the 1000th anniversary of the Polish State, dated 25 Feb. 1958, “Monitor Polski”, 1958, no. 16 (15 Mar.), item. 98, quoted as in: K. Stryjkowski, Koncepcja i przebieg Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego w województwie poznańskim w aktach Archiwum Państwowego w Poznaniu, in: Milenium kontra Tysiąclecie… 2007 (fn. 2), pp. 144–145. Subsequent anniversaries were accompanied by anti-German celebrations, for example a Grunwald Fund was established for development of the “Grunwald field” and Henryk Sienkiewicz’s novel Krzyżacy was adapted for the screen.

[27] APP, KW PZPR, catalogue number 1312, Projekt programu obchodów Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego w Wielkopolsce w 1966; as quoted in: Stryjkowski 2007 (fn. 26), p. 154.

[28] As quoted in: A. Choniawko, Antymilenijny charakter obchodów Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego w Województwie Poznańskim, in: Millennium polskie… 2002 (fn. 2), p. 33.

[29] W. Gomułka, Przemówienia. Lipiec 1964 – grudzień 1966, Warszawa 1967, p. 404.

[30] Listy pasterskie Episkopatu Polski, Paris 1975, p. 416

[31] Krawczak 2007 (fn. 8), pp. 59–62.

[32] Decoration of the Cathedral in Lubaczów on 22 and 23 October 1966 had a similar meaning. In that case the outline of Poland, which constituted a frame for the painting and the “1,000 years” text, was accompanied by an inscription reading “Thee, oh God, we praise”, which was a clear reference to the continuity of Christian worship, and not to Poland’s continuity as a political entity.

[33] The report of the Security Service on the state celebrations in Poznań describes the situation at noon as follows: “During the culminating point of the demonstration there were over 150,000 people from Poznań and from the region of Poznań present. At the moment of awarding decorations there were only approx. 100,000 people left from Poznań and the region of Poznań. At the current time, despite the First Secretary of the Regional Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party, Jan Szydlak, speaking the crowd continues to disperse”; APP, KW PZPR w Poznaniu, 1314, Report no. 9, p. 366; as quoted in: F. Leśniak, Kulminacja obchodów Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego w Wielkopolsce – rok 1966, in: Milenium kontra Tysiąclecie… 2007, op. cit., p. 163; cf. T. Ceglarz, Służba Bezpieczeństwa wobec obchodów Milenium Chrztu Polski w Poznaniu, “Kronika Miasta Poznania”, 2016, no. 1, p. 210.

[34] M. Mrugalska-Banaszak, Rok 1966 w Poznaniu, czyli o wydarzeniach, których nie pamiętałam, “Kronika Miasta Poznania”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 147–148.

[35] Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu w R. 1966 r. Sprawozdanie, “Studia Muzealne” 6, 1968, pp. 199, 202–203; Z. Żygulski (jun.), Wystawy “Skarbów z Polski” (Treasures from Poland) w Chicago, Filadelfii i Ottawie (1966–1967), “Muzealnictwo”, 1970, no. 19, pp. 40–48.

[36] Wystawa Skarbów Kultury Narodowej, exhibition catalogue, National Museum in Poznań, Przemysł Castle, 20 Apr. – 10 May 1966, Poznań 1966.

[37] Ibidem, p. 1.

[38] National Museum in Poznań Archive (hereinafter as: MNP), catalogue A. 3869, Konferencja-Sympozjum “Renesans Zabytków Tysiąclecia w Polsce”. Materiały, Ratusz w Poznaniu 20–22. 04. 1966, Dane orientacyjne dot. tzw. Wystawy Skarbów Wawelskich / nazwa umowna –robocza/, poz. 15, p. 62.

[39] Pismo wystosowane przez Dyrektora MNP Przemysława Michałowskiego z dnia 31 marca 1966, in: Konferencja-Sympozjum… (fn. 38), p. 25.

[40] I would like to thank Mr Gerard Radecki from the MNP Archive for this information.

[41] Other exhibitions organized by MNP as part of celebrations of the Millennium of the Polish State in 1966 included: “1,000 years of Polish music” (Oct.–Nov.); “1,000 years of the Polish coin” (Oct.–Dec.) and “1,000 years of Poznań” (Oct.– Nov.).

[42] Polskie malarstwo historyczne, exhibition catalogue, study P. Michałowski, J. Lehmann, National Museum in Poznań, 11 Jun. – 11 Sept. 1966, Poznań 1966, p. 2.

[43] Wars with Turks – J. Brandt: Bitwa pod Chocimiem, Husaria; J. Matejko: Sobieski pod Wiedniem (oil sketch); H. Rodakowski: Posłowie austriaccy u Jana III; F. Sarnecki: Wjazd Jana III do Wiednia. Wars with the Danes and Swedes – J. Brandt: Czarniecki pod Koldyngą; L. Kapliński, Portret Stefana Czarnieckiego; J. Suchodolski, Śmierć Stefana Czarnieckiego. Wars with Russia – J. Matejko: Stańczyk, Batory pod Pskowem (oil sketch).

[44] Cf. H. Widacka, Mit o królowej Wandzie w grafice XVI–XIX wieku, “Roczniki Biblioteczne”, 2007, vol. 51, pp. 85–101.

[45] The basis for such interpretation was a book by Mieczysław Porębski Jana Matejki “Bitwa pod Grunwaldem”, Warszawa 1953, pp. 14–15.

[46] Polskie malarstwo historyczne… 1966 (fn. 42), pp. 4–6.

[47] W. Gomułka, Zespalamy siły narodu wokół ideałów socjalizmu, wolności i pokoju. Przemówienie na manifestacji w Poznaniu w dniu 17 kwietnia 1966; as quoted in: Przemówienie Władysława Gomułki na pl. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu w dniu 17 kwietnia 1966 roku, “Kronika Miasta Poznania”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 265–266.

[48] Cf. Przemówienie na uroczystości 550 rocznicy zwycięstwa pod Grunwaldem wygłoszone na Polach Grunwaldzkich 17 VII 1960 r., in: W. Gomułka, Przemówienia 1960, Warszawa 1961, pp. 279–285; Wielkie uroczystości na Polach Grunwaldu, “Trybuna Ludu”, 1960, no. 98 (18 Jul.), p. 1; Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 134–137.

[49] Wawrzyniec Kopczyński (born on 27 Jul. 1935 in Poznań) while he was a student of art history at Poznań University was “involved in an activity hostile towards the state authorities among the youth”. Once he was exposed he was recruited as “TW 69” on 28 Mar. 1958. On 30 May 1979 he was “eliminated” – the reason for which was a “transformation into another form of exposure” in connection with his joining the Polish United Workers’ Party. The file, of number 37679, that documented the activity of “TW 69” was destroyed in two stages in December 1989 in Leszno; cf. Archive of the Institute of National Remembrance, division in Poznań (hereinafter as IPN OP) Kartoteka Ogólno-Informacyjna (KOI) Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Spraw Wewnętrznych w Poznaniu – sheet E-14; Dziennik Rejestracyjny WUSW; Protokół Brakowania Akt nr 17/89 z 14.12 1989 WUSW w Lesznie; Protokół Brakowania Akt nr 21/89 z dnia 28 12 1989 WUSW w Lesznie.

[50] IPN OP, catalogue number IPN Po 06/67/95, p. 7, 14, Informacja nr 1 dot. aktualnej sytuacji w związku z uroczystościami milenijnymi po pionie wydziału I.N. z dnia 1.04.1966; Informacja nr 3 dot. aktualnej sytuacji w związku z uroczystościami millenijnymi po pionie III-cim. z dnia 4 kwietnia 1966 r.; Notatka informacyjna dot. sytuacji na terenie m. Poznania i województwa poznańskiego w związku z przygotowaniami do klerykalnych obchodów millenijnych z 7 kwietnia 1966. Skierowana do Wiceministra Spraw Wewnętrznych St. Filipiaka w Warszawie. Teresa Ruszczyńska (1918–1985), member of the Home Army, co-author of the book Poznań z 1953 roku; in 1954–1960 she was lecturer at the PAN Institute of the History of Material Culture, and from 1954 to 1979 she worked at the Poznan History Museum (division of MNP); cf. M. Warkoczewska, Teresa Ruszczyńska 1918–1985. Wspomnienie pośmiertne, “Studia Muzealne”, 1992, vol. 15, pp. 259–260.

[51] Archiwum Akt Nowych (hereinafter as: AAN), KC PZPR, List Stefana Magrzyka z 21 III 1966; as quoted in: Krawczak 2007 (fn. 8), p. 67.

[52] T. Ruzikowski, Mazowsze, in: Milenium czy Tysiąclecie? 2006 (fn. 2), p. 234.

[53] W. Gomułka, Zespalamy siły narodu wokół ideałów socjalizmu, wolności i pokoju. Przemówienie na manifestacji w Poznaniu w dniu 17 kwietnia 1966; as quoted in: Przemówienie Władysława Gomułki na pl. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu w dniu 17 kwietnia 1966 roku, “Kronika Miasta Poznania”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 265–266.

[54] Ibidem.

      [55] Herb miasta Poznania. Publikacja z okazji wystawy zorganizowanej w Starym Ratuszu, oprac. J. Olejniczak, Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu – Oddział Historii Miasta Poznania, 15–31 Dec. 1967, Poznań 1967, s. 5–6.

[56] Perhaps in the future it will become possible to establish who was responsible for the way in which historical matters were presented in Gomułka’s speech.

[57] This thesis is supported by the Church’s stand on the archaeological research organised by the communist authorities in the Poznań cathedral. Due to limited space, I have decided not to discuss this important matter here. More about the state-organized research in the jubilee year: Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), pp. 29–75. On the significance of Gothic reconstruction of cathedrals in the Wielkopolska region: Sz. Skibiński, “Super fundamenta historiae spirituale extruere aedificium” (św. Hieronim). Powojenna regotyzacja katedr w Gnieźnie i Poznaniu, in: Oblicza mediewalizmu, eds. A. Dąbrówka, M. Michalski, Poznań 2013, pp. 153–171.

[58] Przemówienie Władysława Gomułki z 14 stycznia 1966 roku na forum Frontu Jedności Narodu; as quoted in: Noszczak 2002 (fn. 2), p. 188; Gomułka, Zespalamy siły narodu… 2016 (fn. 3), p. 269.

[59] Cf. H. Bredekamp, Kunst als Medium sozialer Konflikte. Bilderkaempfe von der Spraetantike bis zur Hussitenrevolution, Frankfurt am Main 1975; D. Gamboni, The Destruction of Art. Iconoclasm and Vandalism since French Revolution, London 2007, pp. 25–50; P. Krasny, Figury obecności i nieobecności. Wprowadzenie do francuskiej dysputy o świętych obrazach i o roli sztuki w życiu Kościoła w epoce nowożytnej, Kraków 2016, pp. 211–230.

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