The Interior Decoration of the Sobieski Chapel at the Church on Kahlenberg Hill in Vienna

Joanna Wolańska

Cracow (independent scholar)

*

Abstract

According to tradition, in the ruins of the Camaldolese church at Kahlenberg Hill (part of a hermitage founded in the first half of the 17th century and destroyed by the Turks occupying the city), in the morning of 12 September 1683, before the decisive battle of Vienna, papal legate Marco d’Aviano celebrated a mass at which John III Sobieski served. The celebrant – instead of the standard “Ite, missa est” – at the end of the mass, pronounced the prophetic words: “Ioannes vinces”.

The Polish community living in Vienna returned to this tradition at the beginning of the 20th century, and spontaneously, with the help of their compatriots in Poland, managed to restore the chapel adjacent to the church which, at that time, was in private ownership. It was only a few years later that the Resurrectionist Congregation of Vienna took possession of the building and Father Jakub Kukliński (1871–1946) was appointed rector of the church. It was also him who, for almost 25 years, had striven to rebuild and renovate the chapel, his efforts resulting, in 1930, in the execution of wall paintings by Jan Henryk Rosen and Kazimierz Smuczak, which survive to this day.

The present article examines the changes in the interior decoration of the chapel, starting from the earliest, and today almost unknown, works completed before the chapel had been taken over by the Resurrectionists in 1906 (when the chapel “institutionalised” its function as a “Polish church”) to a competition for its interior decoration in 1909, and the designs for wall paintings drawn by Józef Mehoffer in 1912, which remained unexecuted because of the outbreak of World War I, and finally, to the already mentioned decorations by Rosen and Smuczak.

Keywords: Kahlenberg, Leopoldsberg, Józef Mehoffer, Jan Henryk Rosen, Józef Kulesza, Joseph Führich, Sobieski’s Mass, Sobieski’s chapel, lieu de mémoire

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According to tradition, in the ruins of the Camaldolese church at Kahlenberg Hill (part of a hermitage founded in the first half of the 17th century and destroyed by the Turks occupying the city), in the morning of 12 September 1683, before the decisive battle of Vienna, papal legate Marco d’Aviano celebrated a mass at which John III Sobieski served. The celebrant – instead of the standard “Ite, missa est” – at the end of the mass, pronounced the prophetic words: “Ioannes vinces”.

The Polish community living in Vienna returned to this tradition at the beginning of the 20th century, and spontaneously, with the help of their compatriots in Poland, managed to restore the chapel adjacent to the church which, at that time, was in private ownership. It was only a few years later that the Resurrectionist Congregation of Vienna took possession of the building and Father Jakub Kukliński (1871–1946) was appointed rector of the church. It was also him who, for almost 25 years, had striven to rebuild and renovate the chapel, his efforts resulting, in 1930, in the execution of wall paintings by Jan Henryk Rosen and Kazimierz Smuczak, which survive to this day.

The present article examines the changes in the interior decoration of the chapel, starting from the earliest, and today almost unknown, works completed before the chapel had been taken over by the Resurrectionists in 1906 (when the chapel “institutionalised” its function as a “Polish church”) to a competition for its interior decoration in 1909, and the designs for wall paintings drawn by Józef Mehoffer in 1912, which remained unexecuted because of the outbreak of World War I, and finally, to the already mentioned decorations by Rosen and Smuczak.

The discussion of the topic in question should begin with an attempt at identifying the locale of the “mass before the battle of Vienna”, a historical event which prompted the emergence of today’s “Polish church” and the Guardian Angels chapel, customarily known as the John III Sobieski Chapel. There exist two parallel and mutually contradictory traditions, and it seems that the inconsistency of historical sources (which are often open to multiple interpretations) makes it impossible to choose between them and decide where the famous mass actually took place.[1] According to the local tradition, it is said to have taken place at (present) Leopoldsberg hill[2] – one of the many hills surrounding Vienna – which in the times of Sobieski was known as Kahlenberg (yet different from today’s Kahlenberg[3]), and its contemporary name – Leopoldsberg – came into use only after 1683, once St Leopold’s church had been built there. The hill known today as Kahlenberg, where the church of our interest is located, was originally known under the name Schweinberg, or Sauberg[4] – hence the toponymic and historical confusion. An etching published in Matthäus Merian and Martin Zeiler’s Topographia Provinciarum Austriacarum from 1649 may shed some light on the problem. It represents the so-called Wiener Pforte, i.e. Danube gorge near Vienna, with a hill visible on the left-hand side of the print (since it is located close to the river, it must be today’s Leopoldsberg) described as “Kalen berg”[5].

In 1783, after the secularisation of the Camaldolese monastery by Joseph II, the church was taken over by a private owner. Subsequently its ownership changed a number of times resulting in the building’s fall into disrepair[6]. Its renovation was begun by Johannes Finsterle in the second half of the 19th century. The solemn consecration of the church, believed to be the location of the famous “Sobieski’s mass”, took place on 12 September 1852. On that occasion, a commemorative chalice (still surviving in the church) was offered to the church by the papal nuncio to Vienna, Archbishop Michael Viale-Prela. In the following years the building was taken care of by Gustav Benischko, yet another owner of the property. Once the Vienna residents started their outings to the surrounding towns and hills, the interest in the church and the hill grew. In 1895 the Kahlenberger Kirchenverein – the Kahlenberg Church Society – was founded by Pius Twardowski[7], its members being mainly Poles living in Vienna. Every year, on 12 September, on the anniversary of the battle, the society organised outings-cum-pilgrimage to Kahlenberg hill where a thanksgiving mass was celebrated, and, as far as possible, they took care of the church and the historic chapel [fig. 1].



The article is a slightly altered and expanded version of a paper presented at the conference “Polonia Sacra. Historia Polski w ikonografii sztuki sakralnej i religijnej” in Rzeszów, 20 Oct. 2016.

I thank Father Jerzy Rolka CR, director of the Archive of Polish Province of the Resurrectionists in Cracow and Father Roman Krekora CR, Kahlenberg church rector for their help in archive exploration and the investigation of the Kahlenberg chapel. Special thanks  are also due to Mrs Zofia Reinbacher. The research trip to Vienna in April 2014 was part of a project funded by the National Science Centre under the grant no. DEC-2012/05/B/HS2/04005.

[1] Most of the publications available in Polish do not question (present) Kahlenberg as the location of “Sobieski’s mass”. Abundant documentary material was assembled by Father Josef Dominicus Hamminger: Dokumentation zur historischen Messe vor der Entscheidungsschlacht um Wien, 12. September 1683, Wien 1983 (= Wiener Katholische Akademie, Miscellanea, Neue Reihe, no. 150: Arbeitskreis für Kirchliche Zeit- u. Wiener Diözesangeschichte) and Leopoldi Capelln am Kallenberg oder St. Josephskirche der PP Kamaldulenser auf dem Josephsberg (Sobieskikapelle in der St. Josephskirche)? Wo hat Pater Marco d’Aviano vor der Entscheidungsschlacht am 12. September 1683 die heilige Messe gefeiert?, Wien 1986 (= Wiener Katholische Akademie, Miscellania [!], Dritte Reihe, no. 100: Arbeitskreis für Kirchliche Zeit- u. Wiener Diözesangeschichte). However, both publications lack objectivity and have been quoted here only as useful reference sources.

The Kahlenberg church, and especially the “Sobieski Chapel”, has been given monographic treatment (or was discussed in works dealing with broader issues) in Polish, among them: Father J. Kukliński CR, Krótka historja kościoła św. Józefa i kaplicy króla Sobieskiego na Kahlenbergu, Wiedeń 1931; Father J. Kukliński, Dzieje kościoła św. Józefa i kaplicy króla Sobieskiego na Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Literacko-Naukowy” (a supplement to “Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny”, no. 143 dated 2 May 1931) VIII, 1931, no. 21, pp. VII–VIII; M. Rożek, Kahlenberg 1683–1983, Wiedeń 1982; A. Nadolny, Polacy na Kahlenbergu, “Studia Pelplińskie” 13, 1982, pp. 177–203; A. Nadolny, Polskie duszpasterstwo w Austrii 1801–1945, Lublin 1994, pp. 164–170, 269–282; A. Nadolny, Kahlenberg, in: Encyklopedia katolicka, vol. VIII, Lublin 2000, pp. 326–327; R. Taborski, Polacy w Wiedniu, Kraków 2001, pp. 26–28, 214–215; J. Smirnow, Kaplica Jana III Sobieskiego na Kahlenbergu – symbolem chwały oręża polskiego, “Gazeta Lwowska”, 28 Feb. 2007, p. 11; 15 Mar. 2007, p. 11; 31 March 2007, p. 11. Detailed and valuable studies related to the two occupations of Vienna by the Turks, compiled under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, are available online: <http://www.tuerkengedaechtnis.oeaw.ac.at> (each entry with literature, mainly in German).

[2] Leopoldsberg, in: H. Tietze, H. Sitte, Österreichische Kunsttopographie, Bd. II: Denkmale der Stadt Wien (XI.–XXI. Bezirk), Wien 1908, pp. 441–444; V.O. Ludwig, Leopoldsberg-Kirche Wien, München–Zürich 1957 (= Schnell & Steiner, Kunstführer no. 657).

[3] Josefsdorf (Kahlenberg) in: Tietze, Sitte 1908 (fn. 2), pp. 430–434. The confusion is further exacerbated by partially similar, or even identical, historical circumstances, like the existence of incomplete churches on both hills in 1683, when the historic mass took place (the one on the present Kahlenberg was destroyed by the Turks, while the church on the present Leopoldsberg had been under construction). See also: Wien. X. bis XIX. und XXI. bis XXIII. Bezirk, Wien 1996 (= Dehio-Handbuch: Die Kunstdenkmäler Österreichs), pp. 532–534.

[4] See Ludwig 1957 (fn. 2), p. 4 (here information about the mass of 12 September 1683 celebrated by Marco d’Aviano, supposedly served by John III Sobieski, “im unfertigten Bauwerk” [“in an unfinished building”]).

[5] Prospect der Tho= | nau zwische[n] dem Kale[n]= | berg un Bisnberg, etching, 19.5×31 cm, British Museum, inv. no. 1898,0725.8.1754, in: Topographia Provinciarum Austriacarum, Frankfurt am Main 1649, before p. 29.

[6] See <http://www.tuerkengedaechtnis.oeaw.ac.at/ort/die-st-josefskirche-am-kahlenberg/> (accessed: 4 Oct. 2017); Josefsdorf… 1908 (fn. 3), p. 431.

[7] Pius Twardowski (1828–1906), lawyer, Austrian civil servant in the rank of Oberrat, great Polish patriot, founder or co-founder of many Polish organisations operating in Vienna (including the Society of Polish Academic Students “Ognisko” founded in 1864, “Biblioteka Polska” and “Przytulisko Polskie”, as well as an umbrella organisation of Polish societies, “Strzecha”, of which he was the first chairman); see A. Brożek, Kazimierz Twardowski w Wiedniu, Warszawa 2010, pp. 39–40; on Kahlenberg, pp. 41–45, esp. p. 43. Pius was the father of Kazimierz Twardowski (1866–1938), a distinguished philosopher and founder of the Lviv–Warsaw philosophical school. The care of the Polish memorabilia in Vienna, including the church and chapel at Kahlenberg, was continued by Pius’s younger son, Julius (1874–1945), who remained in Vienna.

[8] 20. Listopada 1904 r. Na pamiątkę uroczystości poświęcenia kaplicy króla Jana Sobieskiego i odsłonięcia tablicy na Kahlenbergu pod Wiedniem, Wiedeń 1904, pp. 8–9. Earlier, on the 200th anniversary of the relief of Vienna, Pius Twardowski – who was interested in the church from the moment of his arrival in Vienna in the mid-20th century and on every 12 September organised outings to Kahlenberg – is said to have contributed to the mounting of yet another tablet commemorating this event – on the church’s façade; see Brożek 2010 (fn. 7), p. 43 (the author quotes the original text of the inscription and its Polish translation). Whereas an article published online under the patronage of the Austrian Academy of Science (<http://www.tuerkengedaechtnis.oeaw.ac.at/ort/kahlenberg-gedenktafel-fur-heerfuhrer-von-1683/>) does not mention the name of Twardowski in relation to the tablet in question (though this does not mean that he could not have been unofficially involved in the process of its creation). The inscription was written only in German and the tablet was installed as part of the official Austrian anniversary celebrations and is signed by the “City of Vienna” (“Die Stadt Wien, 12 September 1883”) – which in a way justifies the activities of Kulesza, who wanted to install a Polish tablet. The information about Kulesza’s initiative with a photographic reproduction of the tablet and description of the chapel’s renovation was published in “Kalendarz Krakowski Józefa Czecha na rok 1905”, pp. 81–82. For more about this sculptor and stonemason see: Kulesza Józef in: Słownik artystów polskich i obcych w Polsce działających (zmarłych przed 1966 r.). Malarze, rzeźbiarze, graficy [hereafter referred to as SAP], vol. IV, Warszawa [et al.] 1986, pp. 349–350 (the tablet is mentioned on p. 350, along with information that the medallion portrait of the king was executed by Michał Stefan Korpal).

[9] 20. Listopada 1904 r. Na pamiątkę…1904 (fn. 8), p. 9.

[10] Ibidem, p. 9.

[11] Ibidem, p. 10.

[12] I did not manage to find any biographical information about the painter or the architect. The painter was perhaps Maria Czaykowska-Kozicka (1878–1963), who was said to had left for Paris in autumn 1902 for six years. The entry reads that (at an unspecified time) “she visited Vienna where she copied old masters paintings”; Cf. Z. Baranowicz, Czaykowska-Kozicka Maria in: SAP, vol. I, Warszawa [et al.] 1971, p. 398.

[13] 20. Listopada 1904 r. Na pamiątkę…1904 (fn. 8), p. 10. The workshop of Marcin Jarra, established in 1880s as a branch of the Norblin factory in Warsaw, originally operated in partnership with M. Jakubowski; from 1900 to 1914 Jarra was the sole owner of the workshop; see: Jarra Marcin, Fabryka wyrobów metalowych i srebrnych spółka z o.o. in: Encyklopedia Krakowa, Warszawa–Kraków 2000, pp. 338–339.

[14] 20. Listopada 1904 r. Na pamiątkę…1904 (fn. 8), p. 10.

[15] W. Bieńkowski, Smólski Grzegorz in: Polski Słownik Biograficzny, vol. XXXIX, Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków 1999–2000, pp. 363–365.

[16] 20. Listopada 1904 r. Na pamiątkę…1904 (fn. 8), p. 12.

[17] Epitaphium na Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Lwowski” XXII, 1904, no. 301 (30 Oct.), p. 9; Uroczystość polska w Wiedniu, “Kurier Lwowski” XXII, 1904, no. 273 (2 Oct.), p. 13. The photograph of the tablet was also reproduced by: “Tygodnik Ilustrowany”, 1904, no. 42, p. 809; “Wędrowiec” 1904, no. 44, p. 357.

[18] 20. Listopada 1904 r. Na pamiątkę…1904 (fn. 8), p. 9.

[19] Uroczystość na Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Lwowski” XXII, 1904, no. 326 (24 Nov.), p. 2.

[20] See Father J. Smoliński, Kościół św. Józefa. Kahlenberg, [Vienna 2004], pp. 20–21; K. Kuczman, O dwóch obrazach związanych z pobytem Sobieskiego na Jasnej Górze, “Studia Claromontana” 4, 1983, pp. 185–191, the author cites sources mentioning that Sobieski was given a copy of the painting, p. 186, fn. 5 and p. 191, fn. 30.

[21] Sprawa kościoła na Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Lwowski” XXV, 1907, no. 140 (23 March), p. 10.

[22] Kaplica Sobieskiego na Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Lwowski” XXVII, 1909, no. 309 (6 Jul.), p. 5.

[23] Kaplica Sobieskiego na Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Lwowski” XXVII, 1909, no. 552 (25 Nov.), p. 6; VIII. Sprawozdanie Towarzystwa “Polska Sztuka Stosowana”, in Kraków R. 1909, p. 6. On the painter see: I. Żera, Dzierzbicki Antoni Eugeniusz in: SAP, vol. II Warszawa [et al.] 1975, pp. 147–148 (the prize is mentioned on p. 147).

[24] He even published a brochure with a list of these coats of arms; cf. Father J. Kukliński, Spis Rycerstwa Polskiego z wyprawy Wiedeńskiej 1683 wydał..., [Wiedeń 1910], prefaced by “Odezwa do potomków rycerzy polskich z odsieczy Wiedeńskiej”, in which he appealed for donations for the execution of the coats of arms of each family (as was then planned – in mosaic). The donations were intended to cover the cost of the renovation and decoration of the entire chapel.

[25] J. Mehofferowa, Rozwój myśli twórczej Józefa Mehoffera, vol. II (rkps Ossol. 14039/II vol. 2), p. [435] 431.

[26] Ausstellung für kirchliche Kunst. Katalog, K. K. Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, September – December 1912, Wien 1912, pp. 26–27.

[27] R. Riedl, Ausstellung für Kirchliche Kunst in Wien 1912, “Die christliche Kunst” IX, 1913, pp. 97–110 (on Mehoffer, see p. 103 and illustration between p. 104 and p. 105: “Jos. von Mehoffer (Krakau), Die Heerführer der Entsatzarmee, die Hl. Messe am Kahlenberge hörend (Wanddekoration)”); M. Dreger, Die Ausstellung für Kirchliche Kunst in Wien, 1912, “Kunst und Kunsthandwerk” XV, 1912, Heft 11, pp. 611–640 (on Mehoffer’s painting, see p. 618).

The cartoon is in the collection of the National Museum in Cracow: Joannes Vinces, 1912, distemper, 630×365 cm, inv. no. MNK ND-11282.

[28] “Tygodnik Ilustrowany” 1913, no. 46 (15 Nov.), cover. It looks as if the text were added only after the cartoon returned from Vienna.

[29] Both designs are kept in the National Museum in Cracow, on display in the Józef Mehoffer House: Archangel Michael over the Battlefield, 1913, watercolour, gouache, 40×24 cm, inv. no. MNK ND-8565; The Prayer of Innocent XI, 1913, watercolour, gouache, 40×24 cm, inv. no. MNK ND-8566 (both signed bottom right: j. mehoffer).

[30] J. Mehofferowa, Rozwój myśli twórczej Józefa Mehoffera, vol. II (rkps Ossol. 14039/II vol. 2), pp. [465] 463–[466] 464. It is hard to say which of Mehoffer’s projects were referred to in the following description (as far as the composition with Archangel Michael is concerned): “three history paintings referring to the memorable events of September 1683. The first one presented King John III receiving Holy Communion, the Virgin and Child seated in the clouds above him, and the prophetic words ‘Joannes vinces’ uttered by the papal legate at the end of the mass shown at their feet: below the painting, on the drapery there was the white Polish eagle. The second painting presented Pope Innocent XI praying to St Joseph for the victory of the allied Christian forces; the third depicted Archangel Michael with his left hand protecting the cross on the tower of St Stephen’s cathedral, and holding a fiery sword in his right” (Nadolny 1982 (fn. 1), p. 188; Nadolny 1994 (fn. 1), p. 168). Mehoffer’s surviving miniature sketch with Archangel Michael shows neither the tower of St Stephen’s cathedral nor the fiery sword.

[31] The history of the commission and the circumstances hindering its realisation were related in detail by J. Mehofferowa, Rozwój myśli twórczej Józefa Mehoffera, vol. II (rkps Ossol. 14039/II vol. 2), passim.

[32] It was the second time (after the decoration of the Armenian cathedral in Lviv) that Rosen replaced Mehoffer, after many years of negotiations with the commissioner (mainly dealing with the remuneration for the painter); see: Na ciernistych szlakach twórczości. List mistrza Mehoffera, “Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny” 1930, no. 295 (31 Oct.), p. 2; J. Wolańska, Katedra ormiańska we Lwowie w latach 1902–1938. Przemiany architektoniczne i dekoracja wnętrza, Warszawa 2010 (= Poza Krajem) [available online: <http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2012/1975/>], p. 135.

Rosen’s paintings were discussed by: J. von Twardowski, Die neuen Fresken in der Sobieski-Kapelle auf dem Kahlenberg, “Kirchenkunst” 3, 1931, Heft 3, pp. 77–80; Kaplica Sobieskiego na Kahlenbergu, “Przewodnik Katolicki” 1931, no. 8 (22 Feb.), p. 141 (and fig. on the cover); S. Wasylewski, Co trzeba wiedzieć o Kahlenbergu, “Kurier Poznański” 1931, no. 8 (24 Feb.), p. 9. The execution of the paintings extended from the summer till late autumn 1930 (Nadolny 1994 (fn. 1), p. 272). For the painter’s biography see: M. Zakrzewska, Rosen Jan Henryk in: Polski Słownik Biograficzny, vol. XXXII, Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków 1989–1991, pp. 56–58.

[33] It cannot go unnoticed that Rosen’s painting on the altar wall, unlike Mehoffer’s sketch, does not leave any room for a possible retable which (according to the original guidelines for the chapel decoration from 1909) was supposed to feature a painting of Our Lady of Częstochowa. Thus The Prayer of Innocent XI became an altarpiece painted on the wall.

[34] Just for the record, the subject of this scene given by Kazimierz Kuczman (Kuczman 1983 (fn. 20), pp. 185–186) must be corrected: it was a mass celebrated before the battle (not afterwards).

[35] It was a departure from tradition, in fact a kind of a second order departure: already Mehoffer showed there only an image of an anonymous “Virgin and Child”, seemingly ignoring the information about the celebration of the mass before Our Lady of Częstochowa painting (even the large-size cartoon does not clearly show the altarpiece painting behind the figure of the celebrant). Rosen went a step further and completely eliminated the image of the Virgin from the Kahlenberg Mass.

[36] Rosen completed the decoration with the help of his assistant Kazimierz Smuczak, who independently designed and painted the coats of arms; their heraldic accuracy and style were heavily criticised by specialists; see: H. Polaczkówna, Uwagi o dekoracji heraldycznej kaplicy na Kahlenbergu, “Miesięcznik Heraldyczny” XI, 1932, nos. 7–8, pp. 137–140. For Smuczak, see: B. Gradzik-Jedynak, K. Jurkiewicz, Kazimierz Smuczak współtwórca dekoracji w kaplicy na Kahlenbergu, “Wisełka” 1, 1983, p. 32; Ю. Смірнов, Казимир Смучак – учень і послідовник Яна-Генрика Розена, “Галицька Брама” 1999, nos. 11–12 (59–60), pp. 12–15.

[37] Only a model of the monument, designed by Edmund Hellmer (1850–1935), survives, 1883, wood and wax, 138×85×33 cm, Vienna, Dom- und Diözesanmuseum, Prot.-No. L–146. For more see: A. Saliger, Dom- und Diözesanmuseum Wien, Katalogtexte: W. Kuba-Hauk, A. Saliger, Wien 1987 (Schriftenreihe des Erzbischöfl. Dom- u. Diözesanmuseums Wien. N. F. 10), pp. 288–290, cat. no. 176, fig. 363; E.B. [E. Bruckmüller], Das Türkenbefreiungsdenkmal im Stephansdom, in: Ostarrîchi – Österreich: österreichische Länderausstellung: 996–1996. Menschen, Mythen, Meilensteine, ed. E. Bruckmüller, Neuhofen an der Ybbs, St. Pölten, Horn 1996, p. 605, cat. no. 14.8.14.

[38] Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Bildarchiv, inv. no. PK 3049:33. W. Telesko, Kulturraum Österreich. Die Identität der Regionen in der bildenden Kunst der 19. Jahrhunderts, Wien–Köln–Weimar 2008, p. 32. See also: S. Krasa, Das historische Ereignis und seine Rezeption. Zum Nachleben der Zweiten Türkenbelagerung Wiens in der österreichischen Kunst der 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, in: Die Türken vor Wien: Europa und die Entscheidung an der Donau 1683, hrsg. vom Historischen Museum der Stadt Wien unter der Leit. von Robert Waissenberger, Salzburg–Wien 1982, p. 311, fig. 156 on p. 309. The author emphasises the symbolic presentation, which was characteristic of that period, of the military subject of the relief of Vienna – in the form of references to the alliance of the “throne and the altar” (and not e.g. as a battle scene), and that this theme was subject, and in the second half of the 19th century almost non-existent, in Austrian art.

[39] A devotional picture in the holdings of the Archive of the Polish Province of the Resurrectionists in Cracow [Archiwum Polskiej Prowincji Zmartwychwstańców w Krakowie, APPCR, collection: “Kahlenberg”); for Redlich’s lithographic workshop see H.W. Arch, Die Malerfamilie Redlich in Innsbruck, “Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum” 79, 1999, pp. 55–78.

             [40] Provided one can use such a phrase with regard to a term that, as it were ex definitione, does not have a proper definition; see K. Kończal, Miejsce pamięci, in: Modi memorandi. Leksykon kultury pamięci, eds. M. Saryusz-Wolska, R. Traba, in collaboration with J. Kalicka, Warszawa 2014, pp. 229–234 (in the sense of the Lieu de mémoire, pp. 230–232), with literature.

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