Adam Stalony-Dobrzański’s projects and stained-glass windows for Warsaw Orthodox parishes

Anna Siemieniec

Warsaw University


Adam Stalony-Dobrzański (1904–1985), a graduate and lecturer of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow was one of the leading creators of contemporary Orthodox art in Poland. Creating comprehensive concepts of interior designs of Polish churches, the artist introduced, inter alia, stained-glass windows into their space. Many of these windows were designed for churches and buildings belonging to the Orthodox Church in Warsaw. They are described in this article, with special attention being paid to their history and iconography. The oldest stained glass window is Deesis, created in 1956 for the lower chapel of the Orthodox Church of St John Climacus in Wola. It was only in the late 1970s and beginning of the 1980s that glazing for the upper chapel according to Stalony-Dobrzański’s designs was manufactured. In 1968 Stalony-Dobrzański was invited to participate in a competition for the renovation project of the Metropolitan Council of the Holy Equal to Apostles of Mary Magdalene in Warsaw. However, his project, elaborated in co-operation with Jerzy Nowosielski, Boris Oleszko and Sotyris Pantopulos, was not realised. Currently, in the church there is only one stained glass window designed by Stalony-Dobrzański, i.e. Mary Magdalene meets the Resurrected Christ (1976). In the 1970s Stalony-Dobrzański designed stained-glass windows for the House of the Metropolitan of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church (the collection is currently scattered), and in the next decade – also for the Museum Of Warsaw Orthodox Metropolis (projects were not realised).

Keywords: Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, Warsaw, Poland, sacred art, stained glass, Orthodox church, Orthodoxy


One of the leading creators of modern Orthodox art in Poland is Adam Stalony-Dobrzański (1904–1985),[1] a graduate and lecturer of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, painter, graphic artist, restorer of works of art, and above all a wonderful stained glass creator. Creating comprehensive concepts of interior designs for Polish Orthodox temples, the artist introduced, inter alia, stained-glass windows into their space. Window glazing had been encountered before in Orthodox architecture, but it is in the art of Stalony-Dobrzański that stained glass for the first time referred directly to the tradition of icon painting.

Creating works for the Orthodox Church in Poland, the artist co-operated, inter alia, with Fr. Włodzimierz Doroszkiewicz,[2] later Bishop of the Wrocław-Szczecin diocese, then Metropolitan of Warsaw and Poland, and Fr. Jerzy Klinger.[3] In 1951, Stalony-Dobrzański was invited by Fr. Doroszkiewicz, then the parish priest of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary parish in Gródek, to design the interiors of the newly built church. The artist, along with a team of painters, among whom Nowosielski proved a real individualist, painted a polychrome (1952–1955), and then designed the stained-glass windows (1953–1955). This experience resulted in many years of co-operation between Stalony-Dobrzański and Fr. Doroszkiewicz. The co-operation after Gródek was continued in Wrocław[4] and Warsaw.

The first stained-glass windows for the Warsaw Orthodox Church by Stalony-Dobrzański were ordered by Fr. Jerzy Klinger, who, in 1955, was transferred from Kętrzyn to the capital, where he took over the cemetery parish in the Wola district. As Fr. prof. Konrad Rudnicki, the astronomer and priest from Cracow, mentions, the apartment of Father Klinger “by the Orthodox church of St John Climacus in Wola was a meeting place for a few people who were fascinated by his extraordinary, ecumenical approach to theology. This group encompassed people coming from different places: Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, an Orthodox stained glass creator and painter; Serafin Michalewski, a former officer in Kosciuszko’s Army who received an Orthodox deacon ordination; Jerzy Nowosielski, who often commuted from Łódź, and myself – an astronomer from the University of Warsaw preparing quietly as a deacon to the priesthood in the Mariavite Church [...]. Sometimes our meetings were attended by Jerzy’s wife – Zofia, and sometimes by the painter Krystyna Zwolińska – a conscious agnostic, but with a Christian attitude. There is no way to omit Jan Anchimiuk, currently Metropolitan of Wrocław, called Jeremiasz.[5]     These meetings resulted in, inter alia, agreement between Father Klinger and the Cracow artists on Orthodox Church design and generally on the new sacred art combining respect for Church tradition and the contemporary artistic attitude.


 Orthodox Church of St John Climacus

The Orthodox church of St John Climacus in the Wola district was built between 1903 and 1905 in the Byzantine-Ruthenian style, on the plan of the Greek cross. It has an over-ground part, with an extended eastern arm forming a straight closed sanctuary, and an under-ground part, built on an elongated rectangle plan, where the lower Chapel of St Jerome of Stridon and Prophet Elijah was created. During the Warsaw Uprising many parishioners were murdered, and the Church was largely destroyed.[6] After the war the temple needed a thorough overhaul. When in 1955 Fr. Klinger became the parish priest, he continued the renovation which started after the war: “the first thing he did was check where the iconography of the Orthodox Church could be developed”, recalls Michał Klinger.[7] “Fr. Klinger decided to adorn the lower church. It was the burial chapel and it has played this role until today. He invited Nowosielski and Stalony-Dobrzański. They elaborated a project, which immediately assumed the stained-glass Deesis in the chancel window. In my opinion, which is shared by other people – it is one of the best stained-glass windows of Stalony-Dobrzański. The choice of colours was to correspond with Nowosielski’s polychrome, which indicates that from the very beginning they worked together”.[8]

The Deesis composition, mentioned by Michał Klinger, located in the only window of the lower chapel apse in Wola [fig. 1] is the first stained-glass window by Stalony-Dobrzański in Warsaw. The artist himself wrote about it in his memoirs: “The stained-glass window is small – 0.8 square metre. I made it in 1956 on the request of the late Fr Jerzy Klinger, then the parish priest of this church. The frame was made by the parish priest and the builder of the beautiful church of the Holy Mother in Gródek Białostocki.[9] /I accidentally preserved the telegram: – 9.5. Gródek. Urgent – I will be in Warsaw with the frame 11 May-Włodzimierz. − I responded by sending the telegram: – I will bring the stained-glass window – Warsaw Saturday morning – Adam/. This morning we installed the stained-glass window with Fr. Klinger”.[10]

            The stained glass takes the form of a rectangle with rounded corners. Stalony-Dobrzański left an iconographic description of this window which he drew up himself: “Christ PANTOCRATOR on the rainbow, and here in the Orthodox Church presented in the stained-glass window in the mandorla of Great Glory, hears and blesses with words written for us in an open Gospel + I am the resurrection and the life +/John. 11,25/.[11] This is an old Orthodox icon DISUS-Deesis. – “There is no Orthodox Church without it” wrote the great scholar Aleksander Brückner in his Dzieje Języka Polskiego (History of the Polish Language). This icon is the content of
‘Bogurodzica’, the oldest Polish hymn about the intercession of Mother of God[12] and Saint John
‘the Baptizer’ of the begging.[13] At the lower edge of the stained-glass window, on the right side of the footrest, where the John the Baptist stands, there are inscriptions showing the year and place the work was created: “1956” and “KRAKÓW ZAKŁAD RR” (“CRACOW RR WORKSHOP”),[14] while on the right foot of the Mother of God there is the mark of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański.[15] According to Michał Klinger “in some sense this stained glass is unique, because it has the intense colors, it corresponds with the polychrome by Nowosielski, who was looking for a strong chromatic range: strong reds or blues. There is also little light, and therefore the color had to be particularly strong”.

Stalony-Dobrzański’s first stained-glass window in Warsaw was spotted in 1958 by Irena Huml,[16] who in her article[17] about Stalony-Dobrzański analysed the essential characteristics of the artist’s works indicating his conscious references to the tradition of the sacred art of the Christian West and East, both in iconography, as well as in the glazing.[18] Huml recognised the stained-glass window from the church in Wola as a modern and mature work of art. She paid attention to the original colour concept based on contrasting deep sapphire with a warm range of reds and yellows, highlighted with green accents. She noticed the most distinctive link with modernity in the graphical arrangement of the pieces of the coloured glass: “The creator has also mastered the technical aspects of the stained-glass creation, which may be noticed in logically and esthetically arranged cames. These cames reflect in the best way the characteristics of the present day.
Irregular fields that build up the stained glass resemble the Cubist approach. Despite this fact, the artist never lost the art of good communication which is crucial in the sacred works”.[19] Stalony-Dobrzański donated the project of the stained-glass window to Fr. Klinger and his wife – Halina. The project had been shown at exhibitions of cardboard paintings for stained-glass windows created by the artist, such as the first exhibition in the Palace of Arts in Cracow in 1957, as Fr. Klinger mentions in a short review published in “Cerkiewny Wiestnik”.[20]

Translated by Ewelina Kwiatek

[1] E. Dwornik-Gutowska, Stalony-Dobrzański, in: Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. 41, Warszawa–Kraków 2002, pp. 497–499. The above biography is the most comprehensive source of information on the life and work of the artist. The author of this article, who prepares a dissertation at Warsaw University under the supervision of Fr. Bp prof. Michał Janocha, works on the full documentation and analysis of stained-glass windows created by the artist. At the same time, Stalony-Dobrzański’s work is documented and his art is popularized by the grandson of the artist, Jan Pawlicki (in the literature known as Jan Stalony-Dobrzański). He is the author of a website dedicated to the artist:

[2] Bazyli (Włodzimierz) Doroszkiewicz (1914–1998) was the fifth Metropolitan of Warsaw and of Poland, from 1961–1970 he was Bishop of the Wrocław-Szczecin Orthodox diocese, between 1970 and 1998 – the superior of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church.

[3] Father George Klinger (1918–1976) is a Greek Orthodox priest, theologian and an ecumenist, and a vice-rector of the Christian Theological Academy in Warsaw.

[4]Cf. A. Siemieniec, Witraże Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego dla cerkwi prawosławnych we Wrocławiu, “Sacrum et Decorum. Materiały i Studia z Historii Sztuki Sakralnej” 7, 2014, pp. 104–126.

[5] Ślub Nowosielskiego, [accessed: 16 May 2015].

[6]Fr. Mikołaj Lenczewski, Cerkiew św. Jana Klimaka. Warszawa, Warszawa 2000, p. 10.

[7] Michał Klinger (born 1946) is a Polish Orthodox theologian, diplomat, son of Fr. Jerzy Klinger. This and subsequent quotes come from a conversation with Michał Klinger recorder on 26 May 2014 in Warsaw. The original recording is in A. Siemieniec’s archive.

[8] Jerzy Nowosielski painted a polychrome of the lower chapel in two stages – in 1956 and in 1977 or in 1979. According to Fr. Anatol Szydłowski it was 1977, but according to the subject literature it was 1979. Cf. Historia Parafii. Prawosławna Parafia św. Jan Klimaka na Woli w Warszawie, [accessed: 21 May 2015]; K. Czerni, Nowosielski, Kraków 2006, p. 213; J. Nowosielski, Listy i zapomniane wywiady, ed. K. Czerni, Kraków 2015, p. 49.

[9] It refers to Fr. Włodzimierz Doroszkiewicz.

[10] Archive of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański (hereinafter referred to as: AAS-D), Description of the work carried out by Adam Stalony-Dobrzański for the Orthodox church of St John Climacus in Wola, p.1.

[11] This article provides translation of all inscriptions which are quotes from Scriptures or liturgical texts in foreign languages in the footnotes. The content of the inscriptions from Old Church Slavonic (abbreviated as “OCS”) is presented in Polish thanks to dr Irina Tatarova and Fr. mitred prelate Henry Paprocki, who helped me in translation. Inscriptions written by the artist in the Polish language are included in capital letters. A distinctive feature of the inscriptions in the art of Stalony-Dobrzański is a free compilation of excerpts from various texts which make a new work and paraphrasing texts by means of synonyms or the author’s proposals for translation.

[12] Inscription by the figure of the Mother of God, translation from OCS: “I will not expel the one who comes to me but I will raise him up at the last day” (John 6, 37.40).

[13] AAS-D, Description of the work…, as in fn. 10, p. 1. Inscription by the figure of St John the Baptist, translation from OCS: “Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood live in me… and I live in them” (John 6:56); “Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matt. 3:2).

[14] The artist posted a stamp of Romana Ryniewicz’s workshop in Cracow, composed of two connected letters R.

[15] Adam Stalony-Dobrzański’s stamp, made of his woven initials, was designed by the artist in relation to Gothic signs. The letters are in the shape of St Peter’s boat imposed on the Greek cross; cf. J. Stalony-Dobrzański, Biografia, in: Stworzenie światła. Wystawa witraży Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, exhibition catalogue, National Museum Sophia of Kiev, 20 Oct. – 30 Nov. 2011, ed. J. Stalony-Dobrzański, p. 118.

[16] Irena Huml-Barcz (1928–2015) – a Polish art historian, critic, and professor of humanities.

[17] I. Huml, Witraż w cerkwi warszawskiej, “Stolica” 51/52, 1958, p. 11.

[18] Huml indicates that in Deesis iconography the artist drew from the theme which is common in the Eastern Church, as well as in the Romanesque illuminated codes. The researcher points out that Stalony’s method of presenting faces (focused, serious faces) is similar to Old-Russian icon painting, while the hieratic nature of figures refers to the style of portraying characters in Byzantine mosaics.

[19] Huml 1958, as in fn. 17, p. 11.

[20] J. Klinger, Wystawa witraży Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, “Cerkiewny Wiestnik” 4, 1957, pp. 38–42.

[21] Pracownie witraży. Krzysztof Paczka, Andrzej Cwilewicz, [accessed: 15 May 2015].

[22] Information communicated by Jan Pawilicki (23 May 2015).

[23] Historia Parafii…, as in fn. 8.

[24] The date on the typescript was written with a pen, perhaps at a later time.

[25] AAS-D, Description of the work…, as in fn. 10, p. 2.

[26] AAS-D, WITRAŻE wykonane w cerkwiach – Adam Stalony-Dobrzański – 1953–1978.

[27] Information communicated by Jan Pawilicki (23 May 2015).

[28] Pracownie witraży…, as in fn. 21.

[29] Information about the history and iconography of the stained-glass windows from the Orthodox church of St John Climacus in Warsaw is provided in Magdalena Rzepkiewicz’s MA thesis titled Wybrane obiekty twórczości witrażowniczej Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, written in 1991 under the supervision of prof. dr hab. Andrzej K. Olszewski at the Faculty of History and Social Sciences of the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (UKSW Library Archives, ref. catalogue number 111942).

[30] Information communicated by Jan Pawlicki (15 may 2015).

[31] At the edge of the stained-glass window a fragment of Akathist transl. from OCS.: “Indeed, you are worthy, Mother of all glory, who among all the saints gave birth to the Sacred Word, deign to accept our gift, from a future penalty save us, who together we cry out to you, Alleluia”; inscription by the figure of St John Climacus, transl. from OCS.: “We Praise You Mother of God”; inscription by the figure of the Prophet Elijah, transl. from OCS.: “More venerable than cherubs”.

[32] In the arch closing the stained glass there is an excerpt of the Lauds Song of the Holy Saturday, translation from OCS.: “Do not weep for me, mother. I will raise and ascend to Heaven” and “Those who praise you with faith and love”. The two scenes are separated with words, transl. from OCS.: “Teach us to understand Your Son. We rest our hope in you. Rejoice the cup taking us to salvation”. By the scene showing the resurrection of Lazarus, there are fragments of the Gospel: translation from OCS.: “I am the Resurrection. The one who believes in me will not die” (John 11:25) and fragments of Troparion of Saturday of St Lazarus, transl. from OCS.: “The universal resurrection before your death”.

[33] Next to the holy head there are crosses and initials “N.N.” (Latin Nomem nominandum – the surname worth naming; the abbreviation used to identify a person whose identity is not known). Below, on both sides of the shoulders, there are: a swastika and the year “1942”, the number “100 000” and crosses, which indicate the countless people killed during World War II.

[34] The presentation of the saint with this name is certainly the intention of Stalony-Dobrzański, who wanted to commemorate his sister Aleutyna. Above the figures of saints we may see liturgical texts, translation from OCS.: “You filled everything with joy, you – who came to save the world”.

[35] I. Jazykowa, Świat ikony, transl. Fr. H. Paprocki, Warszawa 2003, pp. 45–49.

[36] Inscription by the figure of David, translation from OCS.: “Serve the Lord with fear and celebrate his rule with trembling” (Psalm 2, 11); Inscription by the figure of Moses, “THE LORD YOUR GOD TO BE AFRAID AND HE IS THE ONE TO BE SERVED”.

[37] Inscription by the figure of Abraham, transl. from OCS.: “Do not be afraid, I am your shield, look at the sky and count the stars” (Genesis 15:1); inscription by the figure of Daniel, translation from OCS.: “He is present and he is the Lord who always exists, saves and works miracles”.

[38] Inscription by the figure of Micah, translation from OCS.: “The Lord trains the one he loves. Come, let us return to the Lord”; inscription by the figure of Isaiah, transl. from OCS: “How to stand before the Lord, and to worship him.”

[39] Inscription by the figure of Jeremiah, transl. from OCS.: “We will examine our deeds and find the way to metanoia. Convert us to you Lord”; inscription by the figure of Habakkuk, transl. from OCS.: “LORD, in your wrath remember mercy. Lord God the power of my”.

[40] Above the saints one may see the fragment of Gospel, transl. from OCS.: “Who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life. I will raise them up at the last day” (John 6:40).

[41] A. Tradigo, Ikony i święci prawosławni. Leksykon: historia, sztuka, ikonografia, Warszawa 2011, p. 53: “The heavenly bodies are divided into nine choirs or hosts: angels, archangels, principalities, powers, virtues, dominions, thrones, cherubs and seraphim”. Cf. Col 1, 16: “For in Him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether Thrones or Powers or Dominions or Powers”.

[42] In Hebrew, Arabic, English, German, French, Greek, Latin, Old Church Slavonic, Czech, Ukrainian, and Polish.

[43] Ἐξουσίαι – Gr. Authorities; Kυριότητης – Gr. Domionion; in this article I am presenting the names of heavenly bodies, in the form which was used by the artists (in halos). Next to the presentation there is the text, transl. from OCS.: “You, who gave birth to a spiritual light, enlighten my intelligent eyes” and an excerpt from the Divine Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts, transl. from OCS.: „Z wiarą i miłością przystąpmy, abyśmy się stali uczestnikami życia wiecznego”.

[44] Ἀρχαὶ – Gr. Principalities; Δύναμις – Gr. Powers. The presentation is accompanied by fragments of the Divine Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts transl. from OCS.: “Now the heavenly bodies invisibly act with us” and “Now the King of glory comes in”.

[45] Literature of the subject provides two names of Winogradow interchangeably – Sergei and Roman.

[46] H. Sienkiewicz, Cerkwie w krainie kościołów. Prawosławne świątynie na Mazowszu, Warszawa 2006, p. 119.

[47] Katedra Równej Apostołom św. Marii Magdaleny, Warszawa 2009, pp. 3–5, 13; Fr. Sawicki, Historia Katedry Metropolitalnej w Warszawie, in: Wiara i poznanie. Księga pamiątkowa dedykowana Jego Eminencji Profesorowi Sawie (Hrycuniakowi) prawosławnemu metropolicie warszawskiemu i całej Polski, Białystok 2008, pp. 443, 451; Sienkiewicz 2006, as in fn. 46, pp. 119, 174; M. Pilich, Warszawska Praga. Przewodnik, Warszawa 2005, pp. 80–82; P. Przeciszewski, Warszawa. Prawosławie i rosyjskie dziedzictwo, Warszawa 2011, pp. 83–91; Encyklopedia Warszawy, Warszawa 1994, p. 101; Historia parafii Katedra Metropolitalna Św. Marii Magdaleny, [accessed: 15 Apr. 2015].

[48] Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, pp. 17, 23; Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, pp. 453–457.

[49] AAS-D, Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to Jerzy Metropolitan of the Łódź-Poznań diocese, Cracow 10 Jun. 1969.

[50] Ibidem. The names and surnames are recorded as the author of the document suggests. In the literature of the subject there is a note about co-workers: Bolesław Oleszka and Sotiris Pantopulos.

[51] AAS-D, Memory of A. Stalony-Dobrzański regarding the competition for the design of the Metropolitan Council of St Mary Magdalene.

[52] AAS-D, Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to the lawyer L. Pantalewicz, Cracow 20 Mar. 1969.

[53] Ibidem.

[54] Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, p. 24.

[55] AAS-D, Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to the Monuments Conservator of the Capital City of Warsaw, Cracow 22 Dec. 1968.

[56] Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, p. 457.

[57] AAS-D, Wspomnienie…, as in fn. 51.

[58] AAS-D, Opis poszerzonego projektu: rozbudowy, uporządkowania i wystroju wnętrza soboru Św. Marii Magdaleny w Warszawie, 1968.

[59] Ibidem.

[60] AAS-D, Memory…, as in fn. 51.

[61] Ibidem.

[62] AAS-D, Opis…, as in fn. 58.

[63] Ibidem.

[64] Sienkiewicz 2006, as in fn. 46, p. 175; Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, p. 24; Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, p. 458.

[65] This inscription was written in Old Church Slavonic and in Polish, cf. fn. 11.

[66] Under the stage there are fragments from the Gospel of St John, transl. from OCS.: “Mary, go to my brothers and tell them I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God” (John 20:17).

[67] AAS-D, Memory…, as in fn. 51.

[68] AAS-D, Zestawienie prac wykonanych dla kościołów katolickich oraz cerkwi w latach 1931–1977.

[69] Information communicated by Jan Pawlicki (23 May 2015).

[70] Katedra… 2009, as in fn. 47, p. 24; Sawicki 2008, as in fn. 47, p. 457–457.

[71] Michał Pieczonko (born 1948), painter, iconographer.

[72] Archive of Michał Pieczonko (hereinafter referred to as: AMP), Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to M. Pieczonko on the creation of stained-glass windows for the Metropolitan Museum, 6 Dec. 1982.

[73] AAS-D, Opis…, as in fn. 58.

[74] Ibidem.

[75] Sienkiewicz 2006, as in fn. 46, p. 174; Pilich 2005, as in fn. 47, p. 80.

[76] Aleksander Grygorowicz (born 1923) – a professor of architecture, planner, city planner and painter.

[77] AAS-D, A letter of the Metropolitan Bazyli to A. Stalony-Dobrzański and A. Grygorowicz, Warsaw 14 Feb. 1970.

[78] AAS-D, Zestawienie prac …, as in fn. 68. The dates of completion of Stalony-Dobrzański’s works, given in the documents prepared by the artist himself, are often divergent. For this reason, we need to assume that they are not accurate. Stalony-Dobrzański in the first source gives the year 1977 as the date of completion of stained-glass windows in the Metropolitan’s house, while on the pane presenting the Archangel Gabriel there is a hardly noticeable date, 1978.

[79] Information communicated by Fr. Jerzy Doroszkiewicz (27 May 2015).

[80] It is hard to establish the original number of door leaves and panes installed in these leaves. It results from dispersion of the door sets, as well as from the partial dismantling of the individual panes from window frames, where they were originally set. For the described set I provide the number of sashes that remained intact, plus the number of preserved panes that were not installed in window frames.

[81] A fragment of the prayer Praise Holy Mother of God, transl. from OCS.: “Without changing the Word You gave birth to God, You – the true Mother of God we praise”.

[82] The pane was installed with its reverse side to the front, therefore the Hebrew inscription is shown in the mirror image. “The inscription is not a literary text. The author of the stained-glass window only tries to imitate the Hebrew style of writing. He selects letters from the alphabet and arranges them in any order” – information from Fr. Prof. Mariusz Rosik (23 May 2015).

[83] Inscription by the figure of Philip, “Hebrew text”; inscription by the figure of James, transl. from OCS.: “Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matt 5:44); inscription by the figure of Bartholomew, transl. from Latin: “I desire mercy, not sacrifice” (Matt 12:7) “Heaven and earth will pass away” (Luke 21: 33).

[84] Each pane in a row includes the artist’s mark and the date “1972”.

[85] Inscription by the figure of St Simon, transl. from German: “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life” (Luke 21:33); inscription by the figures of St Peter and St Paul, “FOR WHERE THERE ARE TWO OR THREE GATHERED TOGETHER IN MY NAME THERE AM I AMONG THEM + MATT 18:20”, transl. from OCS.: “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord’, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven” (Matt 21: 7); inscription by the figure of St Thomas, transl. from Romanian: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son” (John 3:16).

[86] The pane includes the artist’s mark and the date “1972”.

[87] Inscription by the figure of St Matthew, transl. from OCS.: “He gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should have everlasting life” (John 3:16); inscription by the figure of St John, transl. from OCS.: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, so that everyone may have eternal life” (John 3:16); inscription by the figure of St Thaddeus, transl. from Finnish: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son” (John 3:16).

[88] The pane includes the artist’s mark.

[89] Inscription by the figure of St James, transl. from Ukrainian: “But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matt 5:44); inscription by the figure of St Andrew, transl. from Greek: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. It was in the beginning with God” (John 1:1); inscription by the figure of St Matthias, in English: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish” (John 3:16).

[90] Each pane depicting seraphim includes the artist’s mark and the year “1972”.

[91] The pane includes the artist’s mark and the year “1972”.

[92] Ibidem.

[93] Inscription by the figure of Isaiah, translation from OCS.: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord Almighty. The whole earth is full of his glory” (Isaiah 6:3); inscription by the figure of Micah, transl. from OCS.: “With what shall I come before the LORD and bow down before the exalted God?” (Mic 6:6); inscription by the figure of Ezekiel, transl. from OCS.: “And go to the exiles, to your people, and speak to them and say to them” (Ezek 3:11); inscription by the figure of Amos, transl. from OCS “In that day, the sun will go down at noon and the earth will darken in broad daylight” (Amos 8:9).

[94] Inscription by the figure of Jeremiah, transl. from OCS.: “Let us examine our ways and test them. Let us return to the LORD” (Lam 3:40); inscription by the figure of Habakkuk, transl. from OCS.: “LORD. In wrath remember mercy. Lord, my God, and my strength” (Hab 3:2); inscription by the figure of Daniel, transl. from OCS.: “For he is the living God and he endures forever. He rescues and he saves; he performs signs and wonders” (Dan 6: 26); inscription by the figure of Hosea, transl. from OCS.: “He has torn us to pieces but he will heal us. Come, let us return to the Lord” (Hos 6:1).

[95] Inscription by the figure of St John Chrysostom: “ROSE FROM THE DEAD +CHRIST+” trans from OCS.: “The Christ had risen from the dead and demons had collapsed” (Peri Pascha of St John Chrysostom); inscription by the figure of Peter Metropolitan of Moscow, transl. from OCS.: “Be as shrewd as snakes” (Matt. 10:16).

[96] Inscription by the figure of St Catherine “THE WORD BECAME FLESH AND MADE HIS DWELLING AMONG US, FULL OF GRACE AND TRUTH” (John 1:14); inscription by the figure of three Maries, transl. from OCS.: “You also may be where I am” (John 14:3).

[97] Inscription by the figure of Archangel Michael, transl. from OCS.: “What god is as great as our God. You are the God who performs miracles” (Ps(s) 77:14–15); inscription by the figure of Archangel Barachiel “I WILL DECLARE THAT YOUR LOVE STANDS FIRM FOREVER” (Ps(s) 89:2), transl. from OCS.: “Do not hide your face from me” (Ps(s) 27:9), “IN THE MORNING MY PRAYER COMES BEFORE YOU” (Ps(s) 88:13).

[98] Inscription by the figure of Archangel Uriah, transl. from OCS.: “For with you is the fountain of life. In your light we see light. Continue your love to those who know you. In your light we see light” (Ps(s) 36:10). Inscription by the figure of Archangel Jeremiel, transl. from OCS.: “I will sing to the Lord in my life. Come, let’s worship Christ”.

[99] Inscription by the figure of St Barbara, transl. from OCS.: “You will be hated by everyone because of me” (Matt 10:22); inscription by the figures of St Mary and St Irene, transl. from OCS.: “I desire mercy, not sacrifice” (Matt 12:7).

[100] The pane includes the artist’s mark and the year “1978”. Inscription by the figure of Archangel Gabriel, transl. from OCS.: “My soul glorifies the Lord. The true Mother of God we praise”, the inscription by the figure of Archangel Raphael, transl. from OCS.: “Cleanse me with hyssop, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow Create in me a pure heart, O God” (Ps(s) 56:9.12).

[101] Inscription by the figure of St Zenaida, transl. from OCS.: “But whoever disowns me before others, I will disown before my Father in heaven” (Matt 10:33); inscription by the figures of St Sophia the Martyr and her daughters: Faith, Hope and Charity, transl. from OCS.: “Praise the children of the Lord”.

[102] Inscription by the figure of St Pantaleon, transl. from OCS: “Ask and it will be given to you” (Matthew 7:7); inscription by the figures of St Anthony, John and Eustahius, Martyrs of Vilnius “BUT TAKE HEART + I + HAVE OVERCOME THE WORLD” (John 16:33).

[103] Transl. from OCS.: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made” (John 1:1.3).

[104] Inscription by the figure of St Germana, transl. from OCS.: “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation” (Mk 16:15); inscription by the figure of St Pelagia, transl. from OCS.: “Whoever finds their life will lose it, and whoever loses their life for my sake will find it” (Matt 10:39); inscription by the figure of Esous, transl. from OCS.: “In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind.” (John 1:4) and “Holy, Holy, Holy” – written in Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit; inscription by the figure of St Iraida: “FEAR of + GOD is the BEGINNING of WISDOM” (Sir 1, 14).

[105] Prawosławne Seminarium Duchowne. 50 lat, Białystok 2001, p. 13; Prawosławne Seminarium Duchowne, [accessed: 27 Mar. 2015].

[106] Ten years after they were removed from the Metropolitan’s house, the cames were slightly bent and therefore they were sent to the metal workshop of Roman Karpiński in Bielsk Podlaski. The renovation encompassed the repair of metal elements and setting the panes into new metal frames. The workshop also manufactured a new metal door which was decorated with stained-glass windows.

[107] Inscription by the figure of St Nicholas of Japan, transl. from OCS.: “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord’, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven” (Matt 7:21); inscription by the Figure of St Segius of Radonezh, transl. from OCS.: “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God” (Matt 5:8).

[108] Inscription by the figure of St Galina, transl. from OCS.: “I am sending you out like sheep among wolves” (Matt 10:16); inscription by the Figure of St Aleutina and St Hidita, transl. from OCS.: “So don’t be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows” (Matt 10:31).

[109] Inscription by the figure of St Job of Pochayiv, transl. from OCS.: “Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. Rejoice and be glad. You are the salt of the earth” (Matt 5:11.13); inscription by the figure of St Cyril and Methodius “WHOEVER DOES NOT GATHER WITH ME SCATTERS” (Luke 11:23), “FOR WHERE TWO OR THREE GATHER IN MY NAME, THERE AM I WITH THEM.” (Matt 18:20).

[110] [accessed: 17 May 2015]. The museum houses the Orthodox Pastoral Point of the Martyr Archimandrite Grigol Peradze, and the main hall plays the role of St Grigol Peradze’s chapel; Orthodox parish of the Martyr Archimandrite St Grigol Peradze, [accessed: 29 May 2015].

[111] Inscription by the figure of Archangel Selaphiel, transl. from OCS.: “Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good; his love endures forever” (Ps(s) 118:1); inscription by the figures of St Theodosius and St Anthony of Kiev, transl. from OCS.: “But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matt 5:44); inscription by the figure of Archangel Jehudiel:: “+NOT TO US + LORD + NOT TO US BUT TO YOUR NAME BE THE GLORY” (Ps(s) 115:1), transl. from OCS.: “Point my feet to Your words”.

[112] Transl. from OCS.: “We will not stop. God has all the words”.

[113] Inscription by the figure of St Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk: “FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME IS WITH US THE LIGHT + LET’S GO SO THAT YOU WILL NOT BE ENSHROUDED BY DARKNESS”; inscription by the figure of St John the Russian transl. from OCS.: “Glory be to Thee o Christ, our God, that illuminate the day with light and the night with dawns of fire”; inscription by the figure of St Euphrosyne of Polotsk, transl. from OCS.: “I was a stranger and you invited me in” (Matt 25:35).

[114] This is the cardboard painting for the stained-glass window from the northern arm of the transept, showing scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary, and two cardboard paintings for the stained-glass windows of the nave, representing the Council of the Seventy Apostles. Next to them there are displayed five cardboard paintings depicting the Apostles: Philip, Matthew, Thomas, John and Andrew.

[115] The information given by Fr. Łukasz Kolęda (18 May 2015).

[116] Muzeum. Centrum Kultury Prawosławnej im. świętych Cyryla i Metodego w Warszawie, [accessed: 17 May 2015].

[117] Inscription by the figure of Basil the Great, transl. from OCS.: “The harvest is plentiful but the workers are few. Ask the Lord of the harvest, therefore, to send out workers into His harvest” (Matt 9:37–38); inscription by the figure of St Seraphim of Sarov, transl. from OCS.: “But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness” (Matt 6:33), “But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven” (Matt 6:20); inscription by the figure of Gregory the Theologian, transl. from OCS.: “Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matt 10:28) inscription by the figure of Kyriotetes, transl. from OCS.: “The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it” (John 1:5).

[118] Muzeum. Centrum Kultury…, as in fn. 116.

[119] AAS-D, Letter of Metropolitan Bazyli…, as in fn. 77.

[120] Muzeum. Centrum Kultury…, as in fn. 116.

[121] AMP, Letter of Stalony-Dobrzański…, as in fn. 72.

[122] Stained-glass windows designed by the artist may be found in Catholic churches in, e.g. Trzebownisko, Stalowa Wola, Nysa, Annopol, Zawiercie.

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