Jerzy Nowosielski’s religious projects and works in the churches of the Eastern rite in Wrocław

Krystyna Czerni

Cracow, Jagiellonian University

Abstract:

Jerzy Nowosielski (1923–2011) was one of the most outstanding Polish painters of the 20th century. His oeuvre also includes many projects in the field of monumental religious art. Born to an Orthodox family in the Ukraine, he is the author of an original concept of the modern icon, which combines the esthetics of modern painting with Byzantine tradition. He has designed paintings for private devotion, as well as for churches of different denominations. In Wrocław, he has worked with both Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic churches. For the Eastern Orthodox Cathedral of the Nativity of the Mother of God (the former Church of St Barbara), he designed the Feast tier of the iconostas and a polychrome decoration, only parts of which were actually painted in the end: in the vaulting of the presbytery and the chapel of the Exaltation of the Cross. His plans for the other Eastern Orthodox church in Wrocław, the Polish-language Church of St Cyril and St Methodius in Piasek, unfortunately never materialized, even though all the designs, e.g. for the iconostas and the Golgotha, were readyNowosielski’s cooperation with the Greek Catholic was more fruitful; however, the uncertain legal status of the Greek Catholic Church in Poland also proved a hindrance to the projects. In the crypt of St Bartholomew (the lower church of the Exaltation of the Cross), the original Greek Catholic church in Wrocław, Nowosielski designed polychrome elements and stained-glass windows, ten of which were actually produced. He also made many moveable elements for the interior (the iconostas, banners, liturgical equipment, icons), which were transferred to the new church, the Church of St Vincent and St James, in 1999. Even though it was rooted in deep faith and rich spiritual experience, Nowosielski’s bold and original religious art often sparked controversies among the common people, hence its checkered fate, frequent problems with producing the designs, as well as acts of aggression and destruction against them. Today, there is no doubt that Jerzy Nowosielski has created outstanding masterpieces in the field of monumental religious art; their every trace, circumstances of creation, and history deserve scholarly attention.

Keywords: Nowosielski, Wrocław, monumental painting, Orthodox church, Greek Catholic Church, contemporary icon

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Not even the admirers of Jerzy Nowosielski’s art are fully aware of the very special bond that connected the painter to the city of Wrocław. Besides the beautiful paintings collected at the local National Museum by Mariusz Hermansdorfer,[1] the artist has left his mark on no fewer than four temples throughout the city, each a true masterpiece of sacred art. Some of the works of art came to life only on paper, never going beyond the project phase; others, unfortunately, were destroyed. Those that have survived to date, however, are a real ornament to the temples of the city, and the history and circumstances in which they arose merit serious scholarly attention.

Working in temples of various rites, Nowosielski collaborated both with the Eastern Orthodox and the Greek Catholic Church in Wrocław. From the very start, his presence in the city was linked to another Eastern Orthodox painter, Adam Stalony-Dobrzański.[2] The two had regularly met at the services of the Eastern Orthodox church in Cracow; in the 1940s, they intervened with Cardinal Sapieha to protect the interior of the Greek Catholic church on Wiślna-Street.[3] In the first half of the 1950s, Nowosielski became Dobrzański’s main assistant for commissions involving religious polychrome painting. Younger, and in theory less experienced, Nowosielski soon turned out to be a valuable partner, primarily owing to his inborn “monumental sense”. Of equal importance, however, was the foundation he had received in the field of mural painting at the Kunstgewerbeschule during the occupation, as well as his year-long stay at the Lviv lavra and the icon school of the Studite Brethren.[4] No wonder then that the gifted and competent painter, equally well-versed in the demands of liturgy and Christian iconography, was often invited by colleagues to contribute to their religious polychromes. Even though he ran his own projects from the second half of the 1950s onwards,[5] his friendly collaboration with Adam Stalony-Dobrzański continued up until the 1970s. Dobrzański was especially renowned for his decorative lettering and stained-glass windows; his oeuvre comprises nearly 200 monumental stained-glass compositions.[6]

Nowosielski and Stalony-Dobrzański first came together to collaborate on a polychrome commissioned for the parish church in Trzebownisko[7] at the beginning of the 1950s. Commissions in Zawiercie (1950–1964), Gródek (1952–1955), Jelenia Góra (1953), Białystok-Dojlidy (1953), Michałowo (1953–1954) ensued in quick succession, followed by Grabarka (1963), and, lastly, Wrocław (1963–1969).[8] In theory, Nowosielski was assigned the role of a “dogsbody” in all those projects, merely carrying out the projects that Dobrzański had designed; however, his contribution and his individual style are easily discernible on the walls of the temples.

When a single work of art is signed by more than one artist, the fact poses an interesting artistic problem: more often than not, the end product is non-homogeneous, marred with a certain rupture visible even if the contribution of each individual artist is not easily distinguished. A strong style and individuality, however, occasionally break through and take center stage. In Gródek, for instance, Dobrzański also collaborated with Krystyna Zwolińska, Marian Warzecha, and Teresa Rudowicz. A skilful eye, however, will only take a moment to identify the sections painted by Nowosielski; their outline is softer, more painterly, free of dry and rigid mannerism. The polychrome paintings in Gródek presented the scenery of Leon Tarasewicz’s childhood in the nearby village of Waliły. “I remember that when I was a child”, he says, “it was only important to me that the horse was well-drawn, that the Macarius was properly hairy and his beard almost touched the ground… But later on, I could already see that the entire left side… Well, you could see a painter’s hand there, you could see that this was a painting! The right side, on the other hand: it was all just drawn, stenciled in, rigid. The contrast was striking.”[9]

Despite the genuine fondness and friendship between them, Nowosielski never disguised his skepticism of the senior colleague’s artistic achievements; he did not hold his painting in very high esteem. “In the Catholic Church, Dobrzański’s paintings were generally well-liked”, he recalled in 1987, “they were all rather in the style of decorative art, something between Homolacs and Gazdowski: ornamental, typographical, abstract motifs. Sometimes elements of figuration were needed, and I had to paint those, because I was the only one in the team to have a knack for it. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, on the other hand, Dobrzański’s reception was bad from the start because his painting was also bad; I am not surprised by the popular reaction, he really had a rather faint idea of painting.”[10] In general, Nowosielski reproached his colleague for lacking a monumental sense and his petty, ornamental mannerisms. In a letter to his wife, which he sent while working the polychrome in Gródek, he made no bones about it: “My parts are very decent. Adam massacred the rest.”[11]

However, the collaboration between the two artists continued for many years and proved very fruitful. Its crowning point was their joint participation in the important 2nd Contemporary Religious Art Exhibition[12] in Cracow. An interesting testimony of the event has survived in Jerzy Nowosielski’s letter to his friend, an Eastern Orthodox priest and poet, Jerzy Klinger:

In Cracow, the artist wrote on 3 July 1961, I experienced many great (positive) emotions at the exhibition of religious art. Not that the display itself was so good, but by some weird coincidence, both the exhibition and the catalogue (whose visual aspect was meticulously designed by Adam) emphasize the great role of the Eastern Orthodox people in creating religious art in Poland.

It occurred to me that the exhibition is being held at the same time that the existence of the Orthodox Church in this country seems threatened and we struggle to find its traces even where they should be in great abundance. A strange evaporation of certain values from one place and their reappearance in another – absolutely stunning.

The exhibition showcases the projections of Adam’s stained-glass windows and his stained-glass designs in real size; the projects of all our polychromes, i.e. Gródek, Kętrzyn, Dojlidy, Michałowo are displayed with great gusto as small windows in architectural models illuminated from within. In addition, 10 of my icons are shown in the original, three of which are also reproduced in the catalogue. These are the only exhibits that can be said to represent the Church as a whole, and not merely an individual artistic experience. So I can rightly say that, strictly speaking, I am the only artist on show to represent the church and its experience as manifested in art.[13]

It should be noted that the artist was not entirely fair in his assessment. The Dominican cloisters which provided the venue for the exhibition also showcased the projects or the photographs of religious polychromes by Wacław Taranczewski, Jerzy Skąpski, and Józef Dutkiewicz, to name but a few. Many years later, the reproductions in the catalogue are often the only remaining trace of an actual work of art that had been destroyed or painted over. Such, for instance, has been the lot of the polychrome painting that Jerzy Nowosielski and Adam Stalony-Dobrzański produced for the Eastern Orthodox Church of St Elijah the Prophet in Białystok-Dojlidy, immortalized in two photographs in the catalogue.

The 2nd Contemporary Religious Art Exhibition was also targeted at potential investors; it had far-reaching ambitions. The organizers planned for a follow-up and played with the idea of a regular Biennale of Religious Art. However, only one more Contemporary Religious Art Exhibition was organized in Wrocław[14] before the initiative was finally discontinued.

Held in the summer of 1964 in the newly rebuilt Church of Our Lady of Piasek in Wrocław, the exhibition showcased 336 works by 136 artists (selected from among 1600 submissions). The catalogue describes item 101 as follows: Adam Stalony-Dobrzański, Jerzy Nowosielski, Bolesław Oleszko: A project for the adaptation and interior design of the Eastern Orthodox Cathedral in Wrocław.[15] The project received special recognition from the exhibition’s reviewer, Tadeusz Chrzanowski.[16]

The idea to redecorate the Eastern Orthodox Cathedral originated with Włodzimierz Doroszkiewicz (1914–1998), the bishop of the Diocese of Wrocław and Szczecin (the future Metropolitan Basil) from 1961 onwards. He had known and respected the two Krakow artists since they had worked on the Eastern Orthodox church in Gródek, where he had previously been the rector. In June 1963, the Eastern Orthodox community of Wrocław acquired the Gothic Church of St Barbara,[17] and the temple was consecrated as the cathedral of the Diocese of Wrocław and Szczecin, dedicated to the Nativity of the Holy Mother of God. The building was in need of a comprehensive renovation and Eastern Orthodox artists from Krakow were commissioned to adapt it to the particular needs of the Eastern rite.

Unfortunately, full designs for the interior of the cathedral have not survived; we only have parts of the projects in our possession and often have to rely on oral testimonies. For this reason, it is difficult to estimate the exact contribution of each individual artist to the end result. The participation of the painter Bolesław Oleszko (who died in February 2014), a young and inexperienced assistant to Adam Stalony-Dobrzański at the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, still remains unexplained. The designs themselves also evolved in time, turning into a typical work in progress: the conceptions and roles of all contributors constantly changed. One of the initially proposed solutions, for instance, consisted in dividing the space into three naves with three separate altars, one for Greeks, one for Ukrainians, and one for Poles;[18] the audacious idea, however, was ultimately rejected by the Metropolitan. Foreseeing problems and looking for a legal safeguard, Bishop Doroszkiewicz, who favored the artists, issued a special decree on 14 September, 1964. The decree established an official Council on the Conservation of the Icons and Interiors of Eastern Orthodox Churches and Religious Architecture in the Eastern Orthodox Diocese of Wrocław and Szczecin; members of the council included architect and engineer Aleksander Grygorowicz, professor Jerzy Nowosielski, and professor Adam Stalony-Dobrzański.[19]

Translated by Urszula Jachimczak

 


[1] Sztuka polska XX wieku: katalog zbiorów Muzeum Narodowego we Wrocławiu, ed. M. Hermansdorfer, Wrocław 2000, s. 214–219, 516–517; M. Hermansdorfer, Między ekspresją a metaforą, Muzeum Narodowe, Wrocław 1999, pp. 258–273.

[2] The monumental works of Adam Stalony-Dobrzański have not yet been studied. A doctoral dissertation on the subject is currently being written by Anna Siemieniec under the supervision of Professor Anna Markowska at the University of Wrocław: Kanon ikony w sztuce witrażu Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego; por. A. Siemieniec, Stworzenie światła. Wystawa witraży Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego w Muzeum Narodowym Sofia Kijowska w Kijowie (20.10 – 30.11.2011), “Quart”, 2012, vol. 2, pp. 132–139; Stworzenie światła. Witraże Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego, exhibition catalogue, Sophia of Kiev National Musem in Kiev, 20 October – 30 November 2011, ed. J. Stalony-Dobrzański, Kraków 2011.

[3] J. Nowosielski, Sztuka po końcu świata. Rozmowy, ed. K. Czerni, Kraków 2012, p. 20.

[4] K. Czerni, Ucieczka na pustynię. Jerzy Nowosielski (1923–2011) jako nowicjusz studyckiej Ławry św. Jana Chrzciciela we Lwowie [październik 1942 – lipiec 1943], in: Rola monasterów w kształtowaniu kultury ukraińskiej w wiekach XI–XX, eds. A. Gronek, A. Nowak, Kraków 2014, pp. 311–348.

[5] K. Czerni, Katalog projektów i realizacji sakralnych Jerzego Nowosielskiego, in: eadem, Nowosielski, Kraków 2006, pp. 209–215.

[6] No comprehensive list of Stalony-Dobrzański’s stained-glass windows exists in the literature. Scholars disagree as to their exact number.  M.J. Żychowska (Współczesne witraże polskie, Kraków 1999, pp. 85–86) claims that the artist has “created 136 compositions for 83 windows”, while N. Kukowalska (Sztuka witrażu, in: Stworzenie światła… 2011 (fn. 3), p. 15) has counted “over 220 monumental stained-glass compositions”, probably including the projects that were never carried out as well.

[7] Stworzenie światła... 2011 (fn. 2), p. 84.

[8] Czerni, Katalog… 2006 (fn. 5), pp. 210–211.

[9] Recording of an interview with L. Tarasewicz (Waliły, 20.07.2006), K. Czerni’s archives; cf. K. Czerni, Nietoperz w świątyni. Biografia Jerzego Nowosielskiego, Kraków 2011, p. 189.

[10] Nowosielski 2012 (fn. 3), pp. 38–39.

[11] Letter of J. Nowosielski to Z. Nowosielska, undated (1953–1954), the archives of J. Nowosielski; a copy in the archives of  K. Czerni.

[12] K. Czerni, Wyspa wolności. Mecenat artystyczny krakowskiego klasztoru Dominikanów w czasach PRL-u, in: Sztuka w kręgu krakowskich Dominikanów, eds. A. Markiewicz, M. Szyma, M. Walczak, Kraków 2013, pp. 913–917.

[13] Letter of J. Nowosielski to J. Klinger, 3 July 1961, the archives of. H. Paprocki and M. Klinger-Paprocka; a copy in the archives of  K. Czerni.

[14] Wrocławska Wystawa Współczesnej Sztuki Religijnej, “Znak”, 1964, vol. 12 (126), pp. 1492–1522;  J. Popiel TJ, Z wrocławskiej wystawy sztuki religijnej, “Tygodnik Powszechny”, 1964, vol. 31, pp. 5–6; H. Szczypińska, Wrocławskie Biennale, “Tygodnik Powszechny”, 1964, vol. 34, pp. 5–6; J.St., “Nie piszę recenzji”, “Więź” 1964, vol. 10, pp. 101–104; J. Popiel, ***, “Das Münster”, 1965, vol. 7–8, pp. 257–263.

[15] Wrocławska Wystawa… 1964 (fn. 14), p. 1520.

[16] T. Chrzanowski, Współczesna sztuka religijna we Wrocławiu, “Znak”, 1964, vol. 12 (126), p. 1502.

[17] J.L. Dobesz, Kościół Świętej Barbary, obecnie Katedra Narodzenia Przenajświętszej Bogurodzicy, Wrocław 1998, p. 29; B. Czechowicz, Ecclesia Sanctae BarbaraeKatedra prawosławna Narodzenia Przenajświętszej Bogarodzicy, in: Katedra Narodzenia Przenajświętszej Bogarodzicy we Wrocławiu, ed. I. Rydzanicz, Wrocław 1996, pp. 7–30; Atlas architektury Wrocławia, vol. 1: Budowle sakralne. Świeckie budowle publiczne, ed. J. Harasimowicz, Wrocław 1997, pp. 36–37.

[18] Personal communication with E. Cebulski, the vicar of the Eastern Orthodox church at the time

[19] P. Gerent, Prawosławie na Dolnym Śląsku w latach 1945–1989, Toruń 2007, p. 216.

[20] A. Siemieniec, Projekty i realizacje sakralne Adama Stalony-Dobrzańskiego dla cerkwi wrocławskich [in print].

[21] Recording of an interview with E. Cebulski (Wrocław, 30 September 2006), the archives of K. Czerni.

[22] Wacław Taranczewski (1903–1987). Malarstwo. Projekty polichromii i witraży, exhibition catalogue, Galeria KIK, Kraków, February – March 1988; M. Taranczewska, Prace monumentalne, in: Wacław Taranczewski – monografia, eds. P. Taranczewski, M. Pilikowski, Kraków 2008, p. 173.

[23] K. Czerni, Nowosielski, Kraków 2006, pp. 128–131; J. Popiel S.J., Kirchenmalerei in Polen, “Das Münster”, 21, 1968, vol. 5, pp. 319–332; A. Osęka, Między ikoną a awangardą, “Polska”, 1968, vol. 3, pp. 44–45; S. Rodziński, Świadectwo czasów, “Projekt”, 1980, vol. 6, pp. 38–45; J. Majkut, W Jelonkach za wolską redutą, “Zorza”, 1968, vol. 4, p. 16.

[24] Z. Kępiński, Wacław Taranczewski, exhibition catalogue, Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu, January 1958, Poznań 1958, p. 61.

[25] A. Kostołowski, Jerzy Nowosielski – rys biograficzny, in: Jerzy Nowosielski, exhibition catalogue, National Museum in Poznań, 28 March – 30 May 1993, eds. A. Kostołowski, W. Nowczyk, Poznań 1993, pp. 232–233.

[26] Letter of Nowosielski to Z. Nowosielska, undated [the fall of 1966], the archives of J. Nowosielski; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[27]A. Różycka-Bryzek, Bizantyńsko-słowiańskie malowidła w gotyckich kościołach Polski pierwszych Jagiellonów, in: Między Wschodem a Zachodem, part III: Kultura artystyczna, Lublin 1992, pp. 313–347; eadem, Niezachowane malowidła “graeco opere” z czasów Władysława Jagiełły, “Annalecta Cracoviensia” XIX, 1987, pp. 295–318; and many other publications by the same author.

[28] Czechowicz 1996 (fn. 17), p. 21.

[29] Personal communication with E. Cebulski, partly corroborated by his letter to J. Nowosielski of 1978, the archives of J. Nowosielski; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[30] Siemieniec (fn. 20).

[31]   Literature erroneously attributes the authorship of these icons to Adam Stalony-Dobrzański or Michał Pieczonko.

[32] M. Rusinowicz, Ikonostas Jerzego Nowosielskiego z Cerkwi Narodzenia Przenajświętszej Bogurodzicy we Wrocławiu, tapescript of a BA dissertation written under the supervision of professor A. Markowska, University of Wrocław, Faculty of Historical and Pedagogical Sciences, Wrocław 2010, p. 10.

[33]  Dates according to the documentation in the index of works by Nowosielski, stored at the Nowosielski Foundation in Kraków.

[34] Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie, ed. E. Kirschbaum, vol. 2, Allgemeine Ikonographie. Fabelwesen – Kynokephalen, Rom–Freiburg–Basel–Wien 1970, pp. 26–31; L. Puhalo, Dwanaście wielkich świąt, Białystok–Vancouver 1995; J. Charkiewicz, Ikonografia świąt z liczby dwunastu, Warszawa 2007.

[35] Rusinowicz 2010 (fn. 32), p. 14.

[36] Z. and J. Nowosielscy, T. Różewicz, Korespondencja, edited and prefaced by K. Czerni, Kraków 2009, p. 68.

[37] D. Campini, Giunta Pisano Capitini e le croci dipinte romaniche, Milano 1966.

[38] Cf. the painter’s statement about the tradition of Franciscan crosses in: Zbigniew Podgórzec, Rozmowy z Jerzym Nowosielskim, Kraków 2009, pp. 324–325.

[39] K. Czerni, Krzyż z kościoła oo. Dominikanów. Warszawa-Służew, Warszawa, undated [November 2003], p. 8; M.P. Kruk, Ikony Jerzego Nowosielskiego w kaplicy świętych Borysa i Gleba przy Fundacji św. Włodzimierza w Krakowie, in: Światło Wschodu w przestrzeni gotyku – agape w Górowie Iławeckim. Materiały z konferencji naukowej w dniach 12-13 V. 2012, ed. K. Pasławska-Iwanczewska, Górowo Iławeckie 2013, pp. 55–56.

[40] Letter of Metropolitan Basil to the Conservator of Monuments in Wrocław and the Denomination Office of 17 March, 1975; the archives of the Urban Conservator in Wrocław, sign. 288/15.
[41] Letter of the Chief Conservator of Monuments at the Ministry of Culture and Art to Metropolitan Basil from 26 May, 1975; the archives of the Urban Conservator in Wrocław, sign. 288/15.

[42] The information is confirmed by Z. Jaworski, author of Nowosielski’s stained-glass windows for the Greek Catholic church in Wrocław and by E. Cebulski.

[43] Nowosielscy, Różewicz 2009 (fn. 36), p. 87.

[44] Atlas architektury Wrocławia… 1997 (fn. 17), pp. 14–15; Cerkiew św. Cyryla i Metodego we Wrocławiu. Historia świątyni, cerkiew.wroclaw.pl [accessed: 8 March 2014].

[45] E. Cebulski, Parafia prawosławna we Wrocławiu. List do redakcji, “Tygodnik Powszechny”, 1975, vol. 44, p. 3.

[46] Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to E. Cebulski from 26 September 1975, the archives of E. Cebulski; a copy in the archives of  K. Czerni.

[47] Letter of E. Cebulski to J. Nowosielski from 15 October 1975, the archives of J. Nowosielski; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni

[48] Letter of A. Stalony-Dobrzański to E. Cebulski from 5 March 1976, the archives of E. Cebulski; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[49] Letter of E. Cebulski to J. Nowosielski from 13 October 1978, the archives of J. Nowosielski; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[50] Cerkiew św. Cyryla i Metodego… (fn. 43); Siemieniec (fn. 20).

[51] Siemieniec (fn. 20).

[52] Recording of an interview with E. Cebulski (Wrocław, 16 March 2007), the archives of K. Czerni.

[53] Ibidem.

[54] Podgórzec 2009 (fn. 38), p. 425.

[55] K. Czerni, Projekty i realizacje sakralne Jerzego Nowosielskiego dla Cerkwi Greckokatolickiej, in: Światło Wschodu… 2013 (fn. 39), pp. 87–137.

[56] Ibidem, pp. 75–77.

[57] Recording of an interview with P. Kryki (Wrocław, 30 September 2006), the archives of K. Czerni.

[58] Atlas architektury Wrocławia…. 1997 (fn. 17), pp. 10–11; Architektura gotycka w Polsce, eds. T. Mroczko, M. Arszyński, Warszawa 1995, vol. II: Katalog zabytków, ed. A. Włodarek, pp. 264–265, 561; A. Grzybkowski, Kościół św. Krzyża. Przewodnik, Wrocław 1998.

[59] http://dolny-slask.org.pl/510173,Wroclaw,Krypta_sw_Bartlomieja.html [accessed: 21 March 2014]

[60] Notatki. Część czwarta. Jerzy Nowosielski, exhibition catalogue, Galeria Starmach in Kraków, February – March  2008, Kraków  2008, p. 59.

[61] K. Czerni 2013 (fn. 55), pp. 95–103.

[62] Cf. reproduction of the icon Pantocrator with the Apostles by master Dmitri, 1565, National Museum in Lviv, in: V. Otkovych, V. Pylypiuk, Ukrainian icons XIV–XVIII cent., Lviv 1999, p. 53.

[63] Halina Onichimiuk-Piękny, painter, the student and assistant of J. Nowosielski (diploma in 1992), with whom she cooperated on monumental religious projects in Tychy, Wrocław, Górowo Iławeckie, Bielsko Podlaskie, and Wesołea.

[64] Recording of an interview… 2006 (fn. 57).

[65] Letter of J. Nowosielski to Z. Nowosielska from 19 September1985, the archives of J. Nowosielskiego; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[66] Archbishop Mirosław Marusyn (1924–2009), secretary to the Congregation for the Oriental Churches; he held the post until his retirement in 2001.

[67] Letter of J. Nowosielski to H. Paprocki from 13 July 1987, the archives of H. Paprocki; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[68] Recording of an interview…, see fn. 57.

[69] Piękno rodzi się w pracyZ szefem Pracowni Witraży we Wrocławiu Zbigniewem Jaworskim rozmawia Anna Radziukiewicz, “Przegląd Prawosławny”, 2011, vol. 11, pp. 33–34.

[70] Letter of J. Nowosielski to A. Gąsieniec from 28 October 1996, the archives of A. Gąsieniec; a copy in the archives of K. Czerni.

[71] Nowe biskupstwo greckokatolickie. Ingres na Ostrowie Tumskim, “Gazeta Wyborcza”, 5 August 1996, p. 4.

[72] Obraz nie ręką ludzką uczyniony. Ikony Jerzego Nowosielskiego i archetypy, exhibition catalogue, ed. M. Bogucki, Książ Castle Wałbrzych BWA Art Gallery, 17 May – 10 June 2008.

[73] E. Małachowicz, W. Brzezowski, Kościół z klasztorem Świętego Wincentego we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 1993; Atlas architektury Wrocławia… 1997 (fn. 17), pp. 20–21.

[74] http://www.cerkiew.net.pl/index.php?glowna=zaryshistorii&cerkiew=cerkiew [last accessed: 8 March 2014].

[75] Recording of an interview…, see fn. 58.

[76] Ibidem.

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